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James Addison Ingle 






Affectionately yours, 

Bishop of Hankow 







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Domestic and Foreign Missionary Society 

New York 





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To J. A. I. 

Remembering an hour, long gone, upon the way, 

The restless way, all marked and crossed and marked 

By many feet following in ecstasy and pain, 

Still following on, step by step and day by day: 

Remembering the voice, now clear, now far, now gone; 

The wonder-music sounding over land and sea; 

The laughter, labor, rapture and the agony; 
The crimson trail that led the toilers ever on: 

Name we another tryst — the when we cannot tell; 
"To-day" at the ninth hour, or as the sunset chime 
Shall toll across eternity the wane of time; 

The where, — there where the voice is ea-'linq. All is w-dl. 

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Foreword . vii 

From a Child 1 

The Voice 13 

Voyage and First Impressions 36 

The Language 71 

Learning to be a Missionary 81 

The Day's Work. Morning 130 

The Day's Work. Noon 162 

Missionary Leadership. Evening 197 

"If I will ..." 246 

What is that to Thee ? 265 

Index 275 


To Miss Mary Addison Ingle I am indebted for much 
painstaking and necessary assistance in the compilation of 
this biography of her brother. 

In the preface to Dawson's "The Life of Christ," the 
author states that "he can scarce write in vain who writes 
of Christ/' and in a measure the same may be said of those 
who write of a Christlike man. It was not the fineness of 
the writing that gave to the Gospels their power. It was 
life of the Spirit. The spirit of a life, the spirit of 
thoughts, of words, of works, these are the truest biogra- 
phy, the life of a man written forever on the lives of his 

Only to the extent that the following shall truthfully in- 
terpret the spirit of Bishop Ingle, can they claim to be his 
biography, for there has been no attempt at making a 
complete record of his doings after the commonly accepted 
manner of biographies. We have realized with peculiar 
gladness that there was little in his life that was either 
spectacular or great, according to the standards of ambi- 
tion and aggrandizement. But we do believe that there 
lay in its very simplicity and naturalness, in its loyalty 
and faith, in its Christian manliness, in its beauty and 
human service, a magnificent and inspiring ideal and ex- 
ample for the ordinary, every-day man; the man who 
never expects to be great, the man who never thinks about 
his own, the man who merely wishes to do his whole duty 



in whatever simple state he has been called unto. To such 
we offer this study of Bishop Ingle's life, for only such 
will understand it. 

In the past, the majority of missionary biographies have 
largely emphasized the heroic and martyrlike character- 
istics of their subjects, and although these attributes were 
certainly not potentially lacking in Bishop Ingle and not 
infrequently did manifest themselves, and though there 
have been Christian martyrs in China in very recent years, 
and heroes, even in his much loved Kuling Valley, yet it is 
not prominently for such that we would have him known, 
but rather as a loyal, a wise and a consistent servant of 
the Master Man, Jesus Christ; as a "person who could be 
loved, an example that could be followed by any man, if 
he will." In this we find the greatness of our brother and 
friend as we knew him and loved him, and in this, we be- 
lieve, lay the wonder and the power of his gracious life. 

W. H. J. 


"iFrom a cjiltr tjott !>a0t tmoton t&e J>olp Scriptures, 
toljicl) are able to make tfjee toise unto galbatton tbrattjr]) 
fattf) tol)icl) is in Cfjriat ^refittfis/* 

"Speak, iarti, far C|)p serbant &earet&." 



JAMES ADDISON INGLE, the most Christlike man I 
have ever known, was born in the town of Frederick, 
Maryland, on the eleventh of March in the year 1867, being 
the first-born son and the second child of his parents, the 
Eev. Osborne Ingle and Mary Mills Addison, who had in 
all ten children. And he was promptly baptized James 
Addison, in his father's parish church, All Saints, Fred- 

We are accustomed, in America, to make much of self- 
made men, just as if there could be any such thing. In the 
humblest parenthood may lie the germs of infinite dignity 
and greatness, and we are told, by those who ought to know, 
that our characters are made up past remaking in the first 
twelve years of our life. If this be so, and it is largely so, 
then Baby Addison had in his parents alone a magnificent 
heritage. But the richness of it had deep roots. He could 
count nine clergymen in eight generations back in his 
branch of the Addison family. 

Many children begin their mistakes in life "by choosing 
the wrong kind of parents." No such carelessness, how- 
ever, can be charged to Baby Addison's early powers of 


selection, for never did a new-born infant show greater 
wisdom in the choice of his parents than did this one. 

His father, the Rev. Osborne Ingle, was the kind of fa- 
ther that makes the Fatherhood of God a living glory to his 
children. He served for a short time as rector of Memorial 
Church, Baltimore, and was married while there. And 
from there he was called to All Saints, Frederick, where he 
served continuously from 1866 till the day of his death, in 
1909. He was often spoken of as "the Eector of Fred- 
erick"; the children of the town were spoken of as his 
children; his world loved him. Great purity seemed to 
distinguish him among men, and he was no exception to 
the rule — Men are purified "so as by fire." 

Men are not made entirely either through the exceptions 
or through the selections of circumstances ; but the joy that 
mellows one, sours another, and the fire that leaves one 
pure and at peace, will reduce another to the bitter ashes of 
a desert soul. Because he loved greatly, Mr. Ingle suffered 
beyond the measure of most men, and his great heart was 
broken by a series of family sorrows, such as rarely have 
come to any man. One of the "tragedies of Maryland" was 
the death of five of this man's children in one epidemic of 
diphtheria. He long outlived the passing of his wife, and 
heard, while ill himself, of the death of his only son, the 
then Bishop of Hankow, whom he had literally given with 
his heart to Christ's far service. And at his own death he 
left behind him but two of the inner circle of his great 
heart's devoted love. Yet one who saw him but once, in his 
later days, said of him : "Of all the men I have seen but 
once, what I feel for him is nearest love." The love of 
those who knew him was love, indeed. And when he died, 
at that happy age between the years when the hard work is 
done and the time when God seems to forget the impatience 
of his world-worn servants, there were many that sobbed 
because they should hear no more the voice of their father 
in God, and Frederick was silent while they buried the 



And what of the child's mother? She was his mother. 
Is it not enough that she blessed his home with her pres- 
ence, that she gave to the world a Christlike man and led 
him through those twelve years in which he was created? 
She was his mother, and many have called her "blessed." 

She was taken from her son in his boyhood, but the 
nature of her influence may be gathered from an anecdote 
that brings them both before us at a crisis in their lives. 
It was when the Angel of Death stood within their home ; 
and a little sister's spirit was pausing between two worlds, 
that Addison said to his mother that he had vowed to God 
that if his little sister were spared to them, he would be a 
minister and give his life to God's service. The mother 
commended him for turning to God for aid in their dis- 
tress, but counseled him that such a vow ought not to be 
made with conditions ; that he must think it over and see if 
he could not give himself to God unconditionally. On the 
twenty-eighth of January, 1883, Mrs. Ingle "fell asleep." 
Address at Memorial Service, Frederick, January, 190J/.. 

It was peaceful life in the peaceful old town of Frederick. 
The war was over and the county settled down to make it- 
self a record for one of the two most productive agricultural 
counties in America. The town is off the beaten track of 
modern city life, but it has its own charm of social refine- 
ment, of culture and interest, and it is a good place to live 
and work in. Here was the Ingle home, in which the doc- 
tor lived and served. The rectory in which Addison was 
born is not now standing. He was an early recruit in the 
household. But the present rectory, in which many of his 
early years were spent, stands facing an open square, not 
far from the church ; a clean, square, white house — like the 
clean, square, white people that lived in it and made it 
beautiful in true story. 

Certain phases of child life are necessary to a proper 
understanding of maturity. A sneaky child makes for 
sneaky manhood. A plucky child may be depended on in 



the later danger time. And as for a real boy, well, of such 
is half the kingdom of heaven. We shall be discreet. 

His early days were spent in the rectory in Frederick, 
and his training was in his home, where the discipline and 
blessings of being one of an increasingly large family, of 
course, left their marks of joy and fun and jolly times, 
and also in all that rubs off the corners of selfishness and 
gives no time for morbid self-contemplation or self-pity. 
Things were busy about him, work was doing, there was 
comfort without luxury, and there was Christian joy and 
Christian service. The church and town, and whatever 
local schools he attended, all had their share in making 
him what he was. 

It is recorded that in August, at five months of age, "he 
weighed twenty-two pounds and ate bread and butter." The 
imagination of some aunts is surely fertile ! 

"Children under three years are just fairies in disguise." 
When is the soul of a boy first found? A friend of his 
early boyhood days writes: 

"We had planned an excursion into the country to hunt 
for birds' eggs. The trip was to be made on our velocipedes. 
In order that we might make an exceptionally early start, 
Addison asked me to stay with him the night before the 
trip was to occur, and then, with the aid of an alarm- 
clock, it was supposed we would be able to get off by sun- 
rise. In pursuance of this plan, and in our impatience to 
get through with the intervening time, we went up to Addi- 
son's room considerably in advance of the usual hour for 
retiring. Our projected journey had complete possession 
of our minds and we continued to elaborate our plans as 
we prepared to go to bed. I had just turned in for the 
night when Addison surprised, me by taking a book from 
his table and settling down to serious study. I thought it 
important that we should go to sleep early, and I asked 
him why he did n't come on to bed. He said he was learn- 
ing his collect. I suggested that he might let that go until 
another time. He replied that this was the night for learn- 



ing his collect. This was about all he said on the subject, 
but he said it so emphatically that I made no further effort 
to divert him from what he evidently regarded as a duty 
then and there to be performed. It was soon finished, and 
he then called one of his sisters to the door to hear him 
repeat the collect from memory. After this he promptly 
retired, and the next morning aroused me bright and early 
for our jaunt, he having heard the alarm to which I had 
remained oblivious." 

And that was even in the velocipede days ; yet the future 
man bore out their prophecy of calling "to be about his 
Father's business." 

■ Another and later pastime of the child is given by one 
of his aunts, and is entirely characteristic of the man that 
was making : 

"I remember perfectly well his lying on the floor, in 
our sitting-room, with an outspread newspaper, in which 
was a map explanatory of a European war then in prog- 
ress — I forget which one; but I watched him with great 
interest, thinking it remarkable that at his age (he could 
not have been more than ten) he should take such a lively 
interest in, and show such a thorough acquaintance with, a 
subject of that kind. Presently I said: 'Addison, what 
are you going to be?' 'A man/ came the quick answer. 
'Yes, but what else?' 'A husband, I hope,' was the reply. 
After various questions, by which I vainly hoped to gain 
some idea of his choice of a profession, he sat upright and 
extended his arm, exclaiming : 'To thine own self be true, 
and it must follow as the night the day, thou canst not 
then be false to any man.' I thought it high ground for 
the outlook of a boy of ten." 

Addison's scholastic education began in a small private 
school in Frederick, kept by four sisters of Protestant 
Episcopalian flavor. He was a bright pupil and distinctly 
studious from the word "go." In this he was throughout 
the reverse of James Hannington, first Bishop of Equa- 
torial x\frica, and his natural historic parallel. Hanning- 



ton was never a student of books, and always an indiffer- 
ent scholar, though a keen and natural observer. Ingle 
was always a keen student and a successful one through- 
out life. Even in those early days his teachers were so 
proud of him, that in a certain examination in Philosophy 
he was awarded a mark indicating something more than 

Of Addison's early education, up to the age of four- 
teen, it may be said that four chief elements entered in: 
his home, the parish of All Saints, the town of Frederick, 
and the local school. In just what degree each element 
played its part in the making of the boy, it is superfluous 
to attempt to define in words. Only those who know Fred- 
erick and All Saints, and his devoted teachers, should at- 
tempt that sum in short division. 

When he was fourteen years of age, Addison was con- 
firmed by the Eight Rev. William Pinkney, D.D., LL.D., 
Bishop of Maryland, in All Saints' Church, on the evening 
of April 27, 1881. April was apparently "base-ball sea- 
son" in Frederick that year, and Addison was, like all real 
American boys, a "fan" to his heart's core. And it was a 
source of considerable anxiety to Dr. Ingle that Addison 
showed an undoubted preference for attendance at base- 
ball games, as compared with confirmation classes. Theo- 
retically, it would have been a satisfaction to his father 
had he shown the greater yearning for confirmation 
classes, of course; but it is not on those lines that real 
boys are built, and Addison was utterly human and eleven- 
tenths boy. Addison preferred base-ball. Bless his heart ! 

The four elements in his early education all played their 
parts, and the answer to the sum was no longer a child, 
but the boy, Addison, fourteen years of age, frank, affec- 
tionate, brave, high-spirited, a student and a Christian, 
but above all, a boy. 




The Episcopal High School of Virginia, at Alexandria, is 
the scholastic Mecca for Virginia boys. There Addison 
spent two ) r ears. His mother was still living when he en- 
tered, and it was while he was in attendance there that he 
lost her. The principal of the school then, as now, was Mr. 
L. M. Blackford, M.A. 

Dr. Carl Eckhart Grammer was then a student in the 
Theological Seminary at Alexandria, and gives a "mental 
picture of Addison at this stage, showing him, a boy of 
about fifteen, graceful in figure, with a noticeably large 
head, coming up in a modest yet alert way to receive a 
prize. The picture is typical of his scholastic life, in which 
he was always winning prizes with modesty." As a matter 
of fact, he did win the two highest distinctions in the gift 
of the school — the Johns and Meade prizes. 

A boy's school life is apt to be "much of a muchness," 
and it would be an unwarranted assumption to propound 
the statement that Addison's boarding-school life was phe- 
nomenal in any way. He worked hard and did well, but 
he was just a plain boy through it all, evidently earnest 
and interested, evidently studious and successful, but 
brimful of fun and mischief, immensely partial to food 
and keen on the subject of the almighty nickel. Fortu- 
nately there are preserved to us some of his home letters 
which, whatever they may lack as literary efforts, have the 
delicious smack and flavor of the real boy; and a sample 
is inserted for those readers to enjoy who have not en- 
tirely lost their sense of humor, or their milk of boyhood 



Episcopal High School of Virginia, 

November 2, 1882. 
My darling Oc : 

I was playing foot-ball this evening when one of the 
teachers introduced me to Mr. Atford, who said he had 
just come from home and had some letters for me. I was 
ashamed of myself for not writing a letter to you this 
week, though I had not time on regular night nor since 
then until now, and my conscience smote me as I opened 
your stirring epistle and tried to decipher it. I will begin 
with what I know will interest you. Jack Hays is the 
favorite of the school, a first-rate fellow, elegant base-ball 
player, and a member of the church. He is liked and ad- 
mired by every one and has a good face. Though he is as 
you say, eighteen, he is no taller than I and would be 
about right for you. The red-headed boy has not been 
informed of his hair-breadth escape and still continues to 
scratch his head without seriously burning his fingers. I 
had eight invitations for Athletic Day and sent five to 
Frederick. Your doubt as to the delivery of your soft 
messages is, indeed, well founded, as few have reached 
their owners. Tell Mama that I owe Aunt Livy sixty-five 
cents, as well as I remember, and I reckon I got her card 
asking about the cravat, but when I write do not have time 
to stop to read much. I am getting along pretty well with 
my studies, though some of my marks are not what I 
would like them to be. I do not think I am overworked, 
though when I can wake up in time I generally study 
before breakfast, besides other compulsory studying. I 
have gotten used to the lamp near my bunk and am not 
worried by it. Our communicants' meeting is conducted 
by the boys and consists of confession, prayers, reading 
from Bible, etc. This week Dr. Nelson held his first meet- 
ing and talk for communicants, which he proposes to hold 
during the week previous to each communion. Tell Papa 
that I do not enjoy Sunday as much as I would like; be- 


sides being at church four times during the day, we have 
nothing to do but walk or sit in the Society. I do not 
wonder that some of the boys have quiet "catch" with a 
ball, which I do not think is worse than doing nothing, or 
reading what is not fit for Sunday. Must close. 


J. A. Ingle. 

P.S. — I am sorry all my letters to you are so stupid, 
but it is not my fault. I do not mean that you are so dole- 
ful to think about. In the case of "The Song of the Shirts 

and the Drawers," it fills me with to think of you. 

Your stupid brother, 

J. A. I. 
Love to Papa and Mama and the Eosses. 

Every teacher of English prose who is blessed with a 
sense of humor has a good laugh now and then — in secret 
— over the "compositions" of the would-be men of letters 
of the future. In after years it was one of Ingle's particu- 
lar joys to quote certain rich passages from the writings 
of his own pupils in China. But, for the most part, the 
compositions of youth are fairly barren of original 
thought. In prose, Ingle's school-boy efforts deal largely 
with serious subjects, and the power of suggestion is often 
evident ; but in almost every effort we find at least a fairly 
original thought or two, of an introspective character. 
"Spring and its Lessons" is by no means an entirely origi- 
nal subject for discussion, and the connection between the 
"season of marbles" and the existence and imminence of 
Divinity is not entirely obvious; but the spirit of a com- 
position on this subject is, for those who understand boys, 
prophetic of good things. 

There are several on the subject of the characteristics of 
a gentleman, showing that the matter appealed to the boy 
as being of extreme importance. Whether the idea that a 
man's dignity should not be of the kind that needs taking 



care of was original or not, we cannot say, but we do know 
that the spirit of this paper was Ingle's spirit throughout 

Characteristics of a Gentleman 

The only man that we can regard as a perfect type of 
what a gentleman should be, is Christ. In Him we see 
blended all the traits of character that we need copy, and 
from His life we can obtain an idea of what is needed in 
each one of us to make gentlemen in the true sense of the 

A gentleman must be charitable, he must be considerate 
of the feelings of all, so as never knowingly to offend or 
slight any one. He should think the best of all, and if he 
has nothing favorable to say of a man, keep silence as re- 
gards him. He should be thoughtful of the weaker sex 
and treat them with respect wherever he meets them, 
whether they be of high or low birth. 

He should be dignified to a certain extent, but his dig- 
nity should not be of the kind that needs taking care of; 
it should rather be a protection to him. Upright in all his 
dealings, he should not mind accepting from a friend a 
favor that he would render to a friend in similar circum- 
stances. He should be a living exemplification of "The 
Golden Rule." 

J. A. Ingle. 

In his later years there was no evidence of any guilt on 
Ingle's part in the matter of perpetrating verses ; but even 
his conversation was brightened by many poetical 
thoughts; and we believe that it is an absolute fact that 
this rarely appears except in those who in their youthful 
days have expressed themselves more or less in verse. At 
least is this true of most men. 

The following need as critics such of us as have our- 



selves in the dim past been tempted and fallen; to others 
it is but foolishness ; but if we read human nature aright, 
we leave the matter confidently in your gentle hands. 

We have no single completed product of Ingle's along 
these lines, but there remain a number of attempts on 
scraps of yellow and time-worn paper, of which you may 
estimate the value by the following samples. Without ex- 
ception, the subjects have reference to womanhood and its 
charms. The earliest is as follows: 

"My own true love is fair to see, 
As pure and sweet as she can be. 
Charms rivaling Trojan Helen's 1 own 
Hold me to her, my love, alone. 
Is there a rival? She has none. 
Earth cannot boast a lovelier one." 

And again: 

"My dear, I don't fancy your surname, 

And I 'm thinking that as you are single, 
If you have no objections, I '11 take you 
To be Mrs. James Addison Ingle." 

Graduation from the Episcopal High School was fol- 
lowed, as the only natural step likely to arise in the plans 
of a scion of the house of Ingle, by matriculation in the 
University of Virginia. The details of Ingle's university 
life are imperfectly preserved, and such as remain to us 
are the personal recollections of certain most intimate col- 
lege friends. 

According to the author's impressions, the University of 
Virginia man is characterized by great simplicity and nat- 
uralness, combined with splendid dignity and the keenest 
appreciation of moral and intellectual essentials. He is 
rarely or never a faddist. There is no university in the 

i " Cleopatra 's " is scratched out! 


land where money counts for less, where breeding and 
earnestness count for more. The traditions bred of gen- 
orations drawn from the culture and refinement of Vir- 
ginia and the Carolinas are sacred and vital forces which 
the stresses of modern life have but quickened and ren- 
dered more insistent. 



^Rj) aljeep Ijear JHp botce anB tljep folloto ;$Re." 

"iDo ©Ijott choose for me t|)e toodt 3" io antf t&e place 
in tu|)ic|) 3" &o it> tl>e success 3" tutu antt t&e Ijarnest 
I reap/' 



On a bright winter morning, in the year 1886, James Ad- 
dison Ingle dropped in at the Sampsons' house at Pantops 
Academy, Charlottesville, Virginia, and made the charac- 
teristic announcement, "We had a grand meeting last 
night. Eight gave their names to go as foreign mission- 

"You were one?" suggested Mrs. Sampson. 


In such wise did the missionary purpose of a life crystal- 
lize, though the thought, we may believe, had long been 
present with him. He was teaching at this time, having 
been obliged to lay off from the university for a year to 
re-establish his financial solvency. 

This year was spent at Pantops Academy, and seems to 
have been, on the whole, a period of mental depression — 
perhaps self-examination would better define it. Cer- 
tainly, Ingle did a good deal of hard thinking at this time, 
and he seems to have passed through phases of self-depre- 
ciation, such as are common to every serious-minded per- 
son in early college days. We believe it is well recognized 
that it is a frequent experience of college men to endeavor 
to rearrange their life principles about this time. It is 
quite natural that, the receptive period of home life having 
passed and the era of subjective reasoning opened, this 



phase should introduce itself. This is the time for re- 
ligious and moral self-examination, when the dogmas ac- 
cepted from our fathers must be weighed again in the light 
of our newer generation. And out of this period are born 
the definite life aims of the university man of every day ; 
and out of the same come both the derelicts of intellectual 
life and the purposes of the master man. 

In the case of Hannington of Uganda, the thought that 
led to his future life's work was born at this epoch; with 
Ingle, the battle of self-renunciation was here fought to a 
finish. We have no record that he ever wavered or hesi- 
tated after this decision. Questions of time and place 
were certainly weighed and reconsidered more than once, 
but the act of consecration remained fixed forever. He 
had heard the voice of Jesus calling across the sea, and 
he had answered it with his whole life. 

What does Jesus say when He calls to serve Him in for- 
eign lands ? What does the voice of Jesus sound like when 
He calls across the sea? We know what He said to the 
saints, to Peter and to Matthew, to James and to John 
and to Paul, but what does He say to you and to me? 
What does He say to those whom He calls to-day? What 
is a call to foreign missionary service? The question is 
on the lips of a thousand men and women in this land 
to-night. Some can hear the voice and know its tones as 
they know the voice of the wind. For many it is a certain 
sound, now clear, now faint, now silent. Some will never 
hear its mighty music on earth. 

Fortunately we have Ingle's own answer to this question. 
It is true that it was not given at this time, but later to 
his own people in the old home church in Frederick. But 
for that reason it is the more mature, the mellower, w^n 
the added understanding of some years, yet fresh with ihe 
inspiration of his young manhood. In the first place, he 
says that that concentration which is necessary to the 
highest success in the ordinary pursuits of men, in -he 
quest of Christ's kingdom is called consecration. It is ;he 


same necessity to success, and without it more or less fall- 
ing short of attainment may be expected. 

"What is this surrender, this consecration? Men often 
talk and think of it as if it were a living death. The 
Christian merely yields the direction of his life, and with 
it all its cares and responsibilities, to Him who bestowed 
that life. All of life's highest blessings are still his. In- 
stead of following his own will and seeking his ends in 
everything, he tries to follow the divine will, as it is made 
known to him. He does not fold his hands and sit in idle- 
ness. Idleness is not resignation, but laziness, and so, self- 
will. His life is an active one, an unceasing effort, a con- 
stant struggle. He is no longer his own. Every act must 
be done for God's glory. His time, his health, his talents 
and wealth are not his. They are a deposit for which he 
must render a strict account. He must not choose his 
sphere of life for himself, but must leave it to the love and 
wisdom of the Father, who will arrange the time, place, 
and circumstances better than he in his ignorance can do. 
All, all is God's. 

Supposing, then, that we all have this willingness to do 
our duty, there still remains the great question, "What is 
my duty?" Common sense leads us to suppose that He 
who imposed that duty can best tell us what it is and how 
it must be done. The prayer of the penitent persecutor, 
"Lord, what wilt Thou have me do ?" must be made ours. 
We must have the attentive ear of the childlike prophet — 
ready to catch every word of the divine command when the 
Lord does speak to his listening servant. . . . 

If God saw fit to send His Son to earth to redeem men 
from sin and its consequences, without a doubt this re- 
demption was a matter of infinite importance in His sight. 
Then the proclamation of this redemption, so that men 
can receive it, must be of like importance, of inconceivable 
moment. It was the way home to the Father that Christ 
came to illumine and make easy; that was the purpose of 
His coming. For this end He founded His Church. 



Since, therefore, the great design of the great God is to 
proclaim the salvation He has procured, and obtain its 
acceptance by sinful men, could there be from His ser- 
vants any more acceptable offering of service than to aid 
in this ? From love to my friend I try to further his plans. 
How much more shall I be in active sympathy with my 
Father in heaven, and prove my love by aiding in His 
work ! . . . 

But you ask, "Can I not do good work at home ?" You 
can. Perhaps better work than abroad. You may be totally 
unfitted, mentally and physically, for such work. But with 
us, at this moment, that is not the question. The question 
rather is, "Am I willing to go? Am I content to let my 
Heavenly Father decide whether or not I shall go ? On this 
hinges the question of the reality and strength of our love. 
We may be quite unfit, as has been said, to undertake foreign 
work. But do you think that our work at home will be 
complete and will receive the fullest blessing, if we are 
steadily dodging a plain command, either refusing its con- 
sideration or openly disobeying it ? I do not ; nor do you. 
Religion is everything if it is anything to us. Consecration 
is entire or not at all. 

The only conclusive evidence of a man's sincerity is 
that he gives himself for a principle. Words, money, all 
things else, are comparatively easy to give away ; but when 
a man makes a gift of his daily life and practice, it is plain 
that the truth, whatever it may be, has taken possession 
of him." 

Ingle's call, then, was this. God so loved the world that 
He gave His only begotten Son, to the end that all that 
believe in Him should have everlasting life. If so, then 
the proclamation of this redeeming love, so that all men 
shall receive it, must be the supreme worth-while princi- 
ple. And if the conclusive evidence of sincerity is the gift 
of one's life, then the utmost gift of one's life is the obe- 
dience to Christ's great missionary commandment, "Go ye 
into all the world." 


In our experience, what we may name the call to Chris- 
tian Mission work usually comes along one of two lines, if 
it is to prove a thing of strength and accomplishment. 
Either it is a slow evolution, with its roots in family life 
or some personal association dating back into the forma- 
tive years, or it comes in the manner of what the evangeli- 
cals call "conversion," when, all the foundations being laid, 
there is needed but the revelation of a great light to make 
clear the need and determine the purpose. To St. Paul, 
the call was along the latter line, the great clarifying 
vision, rather than the change of heart. Perhaps Han- 
nington's was also such; and some of the finest missionary 
types that we have, have chosen their life work almost on 
an instant. Ingle's call was distinctly of the former type. 
He was called "bishop" by the nurse in his baby days; he 
was called "bishop" as a nickname in school. It will ap- 
pear fairly evident that he always had the missionary pur- 
pose more or less distinctly in his mind, and with his 
particular intellectual gifts, it is not remarkable that the 
Pantops experience inclined him to consider seriously edu- 
cational work in Japanese Government schools about that 
time. But it was clearly inevitable that mature days 
would allow his intensely spiritual nature to assert itself 
and dominate his future. It is certain that even before 
the end of his university career, he had definitely made up 
his mind, both to study for the ministry and to offer him- 
self to the Church for her foreign missionary service. 

"The voice of Jesus sounds o'er land and sea." 

The value to the man himself of stopping his own 
studies and replacing them by a year of teaching others, 
can readily be appreciated by any one who has had this 
experience. It is as if one were to pause for a time in 
any work for one's self and consider its effect on one's sur- 
roundings. The viewpoint is altogether different, and a 
readjustment of values inevitably takes place. At all 


events, there was a new enthusiasm and a greater sweet- 
ness in the later years of Ingle's university life. The 
spirit of the man had ripened ; life had become more real, 
of its purposes he had himself become conscious. 

Certain memories we have of this time from his room- 
mate, William N. Berkeley, M.D. 


Both of us being members of the same fraternity (Phi 
Kappa Psi), I had met Ingle occasionally already in 1886. 
He was away from college that year, teaching at Pantops 
Academy, but visited the old place now and then at vaca- 
tion times. 

Our room, No. 23, had been the home of our common 
friends and club-mates for some years, and my room- 
mate's popularity and hospitableness did not tend to make 
it less of a resort, though both of us planned to be "dig- 
gers," and were not so blessed with this world's goods that 
we could afford to give much time to idleness. 

Ingle's ticket, if I remember, was Jun. and Sen. Natural 
Philosophy, Logic, Psychology, French and Chemistry — 
a serious undertaking. He needed all these, however, to 
complete his M.A. degree, and his friends had not nearly 
so much doubt of his success as he had. 

I remember very well the looks of our room after we 
fixed it up with such "traps" as we had. There were two 
beds, a bureau, a table, and two chairs. When visitors 
came, we used the beds and the guests took the chairs. 
Ingle's chair was a large rocker, and he had a big lap- 
board to write and read on — an arrangement of which he 
was specially fond. The walls were but little adorned. I 
do not recall anything much now, except an elaborate com- 
bination of Japanese fans which had been given him by 
"somebody," and two or three framed photographs — one, 
that of his sister, I think, and another. For light, we were 
still using student-lamps, and for heat we burned soft coal 



in an open fireplace. For the coal, students usually paid 
$2.50 the half ton, buying little green "coal tickets" for 
this quantity from the proctor and having the coal stored 
in our cellars. Our servant was "Hercules" — a name well 
remembered, I don't doubt, by all the dwellers of that 
generation on East Lawn. Hercules was black by nature, 
and his hands still blacker by reason of the fact (if we 
might judge from the finger-prints on the sheets and pil- 
lows after he had "set the room to rights") that he never 
washed them. Hercules had a long-standing thirst for 
spirits, too, and his services were sometimes interrupted 
by several days' absence, as I remember, when recovering 
from a "celebration." However, he managed most of the 
time to get through his work, somehow, and we were too 
young and careless to be discomposed long by trifles. 

Our day's work began at seven in the morning. Ingle 
had already breakfasted and was at Chapel by 7.50. Eev. 
James M. Eawlings was chaplain that year, and I remem- 
ber well how simple and impressive that little ten min- 
utes' service used to be. Ingle would then study or go to 
lecture (with an hour's stop for dinner) till 5 p.m., when 
he laid books aside and played tennis or went walking 
with friends till 6.30, the supper hour. After supper he 
smoked a long-stemmed pipe for a little while, then worked 
at books again till eleven, then punctually to bed. Satur- 
day nights we stopped work earlier, and "skylarked" on 
the lawn, or went to club meetings or had "spreads" of 
jelly and cheese and crackers, with neighbors from our 
row or from across the lawn. On Sundays we rose at eight, 
breakfasted, and walked six miles out into the Kagged 
Mountains to help in the conduct of a Mission Sunday 
School, getting home again from the twelve-mile walk 
about half after one. Frank Muller — now teaching in 
Japan, I am told — used to meet us two miles out; he 
walked down from his lodgings on Observatory Mountain. 

I recall a boyish resolve we once made late in autumn, 
on the way home from Sunday School to visit the Char- 



lottesville Reservoir — four miles out of our path. We lost 
our way, not reaching the reservoir till two, nor home till 
four o'clock. But we were able (a fact which makes that 
old time seem further off than anything else I remember !) 
to solace ourselves with apples from the laden trees along 
the way, instead of dinner. After we got home, I slipped 
down the lawn and begged some lunch from my aunt, Mrs. 
John B. Minor, and we ate it to the last crumb with the 
appetites that only college boys feel. 

If we got home at the usual time, Ingle usually arrayed 
himself in his best and went visiting "down-town/ 7 not 
appearing at the college again till 11.30 p.m., when he and 
"Joe" Dunn (now Bev. Jos. B. Dunn, rector of the Epis- 
copal Church at Suffolk, Virginia) used to put in an ap- 
pearance together, about the time I was going to bed. 
They had usually been at the same house "down-town/' 
and stayed till they were sent away ! 

I think no man of his acquaintance in college could be 
found who did not admire and like Ingle. His hearty, 
natural, unaffected ways won the kindly regard of every 
one he met. His acquaintances remarked of him generally 
that Ingle's Christianity was more attractive than that of 
anybody they had ever known. His "sound mind in a 
sound body" taught him instinctively to avoid extremes, 
to be silent at the right time, to speak up at the right time. 
He was deeply interested in the work of the college Y. M. 
C. A., and rarely missed a meeting. His talks there, when 
he did talk, were simple, earnest, plain, from the heart, 
voicing the convictions of a Christian whose ghosts of 
doubt had long since been laid. He had already resolved to 
go to China, and he helped to gather together a little com- 
pany of future missionaries in the college, and to diffuse 
interest and sympathy generally in the work. But, far 
more than his words, his life spoke for the sincerity of his 
heart and the depth of his conviction, and it is a gentle 
thought to us that perhaps in ways that he thought least 
of, his influence had been most permanent and abiding. 



The year passed rapidly along, and, thanks to his fine 
constitution and active exercise, he never had a day's in- 
disposition the whole session and made all of his tickets 
with ease. I remember how happy he looked when he came 
in one day in early June, several weeks before we could 
usually hope to hear from our examinations, and said Prof. 
Scheie de Vere had met him on the arcade and told him 
in so many words that he was "safe" in French. It was 
not long before good news from all the other tickets was 
also published, and with great thankfulness we gave our- 
selves over, during the last week, to sheer "loafing," — 
wound up by the proud day when he went forward, in the 
presence of his friends, to receive his degree of Master of 
Arts; — and so our year was over. 

It hardly seems right to stop without saying how much 
he was loved and esteemed by his club-mates. Among 
these young men, all "good fellows" and gentlemen, but 
naturally of very varying "theological bias," he was able 
to move with such tact and natural kindliness that he was 
a great source of unity and strength in the club, and the 
object of sincere regard and affection with us all. 

The many happy, careless nights we passed at "meet- 
ings," the uproariously funny things the jokers said and 
did, the feasts we had, the songs we sang, the tobacco we 
smoked, — till, like Diogenes Teufelsdrockh, we departed 
"cloud-capped within and without" — all this I am bound 
by solemn oath and covenant not to reveal ! It was all that 
goes to make up gentle memories of college life in general 
and of Addison Ingle in particular. 

Oft" December 10, 1887, Ingle wrote to his father that 
he felt himself entirely too young yet to study for the 
ministry and that he was very seriously considering and 
wanted his advice about accepting for a couple of years a 
teaching appointment under the Japanese Government. 
It appeared that the Japanese Government had about 
twelve vacancies in their staff of English teachers, and 


that they "had expressed a preference for Christians." 
He says : 

"You cannot fail to see the advantages that open up a 
still wider one: A chance to learn the language and cus- 
toms, without committing myself to the missionary work, 
yet all the time fitting myself for that work, and determin- 
ing my field when I shall go forth in that capacity. A 
chance of expanding and ripening character and doing 

Subsequent events, however, show that it was deemed 
wise that he should not accept this offer for Japan, but 
begin his study for the ministry at once, and his dear 
friend, James W. rTorris, seems to have greatly influenced 
him to join him at the Virginia Theological Seminary and 
so to hasten his preparation for ordination and his mis- 
sionary life. 

At the end of three years of university life, Ingle took 
his degree as Master of Arts (this brings us to the spring 
of 1888) ; and Dr. Grammer says of him that the univer- 
sity stamp was always shown in the precision of his 
thought and expression, and in his power of concentration 
and sustained mental exertion. 

Another very considerable factor than this in the de- 
velopment of the man, however, remained yet to determine 
itself — the question as to the future pre-eminence of studi- 
ous and especially literary instincts as compared with 
practical efficiency. We well know of not a few men, of 
no greater literary gifts than Ingle, who have allowed 
themselves to become thereby involved, — to considerable 
loss, as regards their personal character and their practi- 
cal efficiency. Ingle's was a studiously analytical nature. 

But what is perhaps even more subtle a drag on practi- 
cal development, he had a certain dreamy and positively 
poetical tendency, as exemplified in his manner of thought 
at this time. 

With regard to his poetic manner of thought, every 
youth dreams his day-dreams and learns at some time or 



other that the familiar figures of nature really mean some- 
thing besides pretty words ; yet a man who writes his own 
such thoughts is not the man that one would naturally 
expect to find roughing it in the heart of Hu Nan, alone 
in a Chinese house-boat, or organizing with ease the in- 
tricate material of a large foreign missionary diocese. 

The fact remains, however, that Ingle was an all-round 
man, a dreamer who put his visions into practice; a ped- 
ant whose very wayside conversation was filled with pur- 
pose and power. And now that we have written it, we 
remember that these were the very characteristics of the 
Master Whom he served with his whole soul. 

There were three factors that we easily recognize which 
made Ingle a practical man. Perhaps not the least of 
these in importance was his keen sense of humor. A man 
who can see the funny side of everything and handle it 
with kindliness and gentle dignity, is not likely to allow 
himself to become ridiculous in his own eyes. Humor is 
a great balancer and smoother over of fads and idiosyn- 
crasies. Humor has a very positive psychological value. 

We have already spoken of the peculiar power which the 
University of Virginia has of enabling her sons to weigh 
and judge the essentials ; this is the second element which 
we recognize in making Ingle a practical man. 

In the missionary work of the Alexandria Seminary, we 
find the third and perhaps the most potent, and we find 
in this the most conspicuous figure which entered into the 
sum of his development during the three years of that ap- 

In September, 1888, Ingle entered the Theological Sem- 
inary of Virginia, and graduated from it three years later 
in 1891. The Seminary is more familiarly known as 
"Alexandria," and Ingle was back on well-known ground. 
The prospectus says of it as follows : 

"The Seminary has given to the Church over one thou- 
sand ministers, twenty-nine of its alumni to the episco- 
oate, and more than sixty men to the Foreign Mission 


field. In addition to this, it has founded all the Foreign 
Missions of our Church, except where in recent years the 
Church has followed the flag into our newly acquired colo- 
nial possessions/' 

Certain items, not stated in the prospectus, we cannot 
resist adding thereto. 

"Alexandria" is a typical Low Church seminary, — per- 
haps evangelical is the more proper definition. Ingle's 
father was a very low churchman, and in Ingle's younger 
clerical days he shows considerable anxiety concerning the 
churchmanship of those colleagues with whom he worked; 
particularly is this evident of his fears with regard to Epis- 
copal jurisdiction in China, and it is interesting to nDte 
that the older he grew, the less importance did he place 
upon the matter, until the time when he was himself 
bishop, and wielded jurisdiction over every kind and de- 
scription of churchman with entire impartiality and re- 
spect for all. 

The total cost of living at Alexandria, exclusive of per- 
sonal effects, is stated to be about one hundred and seventy- 
eight dollars, and one may easily gather from this that 
neither sumptuosity nor self-indulgence is the rule there. 

The characteristics of the school, aside from its theo- 
logical status, are mainly such as make the most of all the 
Church's missionary interests. There are a number of 
regular Seminary missions — at present twelve — in the 
neighborhood, where services are held by students. "These 
have been established by the Local Missionary Society and 
are directed by a committee composed of students elected 
by the Society and the Professor of Pastoral Theology, 
who has been appointed by the bishop of the diocese as 
rector in charge of the mission stations." 

During Ingle's seminary life he was closely in touch 
with this mission work, which, especially among the col- 
ored people, was difficult and required unusual tact and 
sound common sense, and he had both of these. 




In 1889, Ingle suffered a great disappointment, into which 
we may not go, but of which he left some thoughts from 
which the following is taken. 

"And ever since ... I have been constrained to ac- 
knowledge 'He doeth all things well.' And if my heart 
feels empty, is it not my own fault ? He has promised to 
come in and dwell there. Why do I not admit Him? 
Mine is the blame, gracious Lord ! and rightly mine the 
suffering. For in my ingratitude I have forgotten my 
Lord and then thought that He had forgotten me. Be- 
cause my love was cold, I fancied His had also grown cold. 
If, then, I have neglected Him, shall I not henceforth 
cease to neglect? I have not made Him my Saviour in 
full. I was willing to be saved by Him from eternal 
death, but not willing to take Him as the partner of my 
heart, my love, my life, my all. No! I have slighted 
Him, turned Him away when He came with His boundless 
offers of mercy. But I shall do so no longer. Henceforth 
I am entirely His, and He shall be mine — mine for life, 
mine for death, mine through all eternity. God help me ! 

"Frederick, The Rectory, July 19, 1889." 

The storm was too great, and a little later we find signs 
of morbid introspection — real enough at the time, no 
doubt, and fearful with suffering, but distinctly morbid, — 
but at the end light seems to come, and at the name of 
Jesus, peace. 

"But, thank God, 'ye shall call His Name Jesus, for He 
shall save His people from their sins/ Saviour, let me 
claim the promise. No merits, no worth. Nothing but 
sins, and falls and sins. Nothing but a belief that Thou 



canst save me, and wilt save me, if I endure to the end. 
Yes, and a resolve to 'endure to the end.' 

"Precious Jesus, I bring myself to Thee. And I sol- 
emnly promise, that if Thou wilt strengthen and help me, 
I will yet bring this heart into subjection to Thee. But I 
ask for a double portion of Thy aid, Lord, for I am weak, 
so prone to fall. ! be and remain close to me, and let 
me feel Thy Presence and remember Thy promises, when- 
ever I am tempted to sin against Thee. 

"Saviour, this strength means everything to me. Do 
not let me fail for an instant. Do not desert me, for I am 
lost without Thee. Accept, I pray, this offering of my all 
for Thy service, and let me yet do a glorious and useful 
work for Thee, and carry Thy gospel to the nations who 
as yet know it not. Father, bless me, and let this day be 
the beginning of a steadily uprising life, and make me to 
grow in grace day by day till I come to Thy everlasting 
kingdom. For Christ's sake. 

"(Signed) James Addison Ingle. 

"September 15, 1889." 

Two letters from his associates of this time give a 
pretty good idea of the circumstances of Ingle's seminary 
life, and, though without any special sequence, when taken 
together give the picture. 

Mr. Josiah R. Ellis, for example, writes : 

November 30, 1904. 
My dear Miss Ingle : 

I knew your brother well, and to know him was to love 
him. He and I were together on the Colored Mission, as 
it was called. 

His work at the Colored Mission was methodical and 
painstaking. Tuesday and Thursday nights were given 
to the Night School; Friday evening to visiting the ne- 
groes in their humble homes; Sunday afternoon to the 
Sunday School. These appointments were sacredly kept. 



He regarded them as opportunities of forwarding the 
Lord's work among these poor people, and held them as 
a sacred trust. 

His visits to the negroes in their cabins was an empha- 
sized phase of the work which he diligently prosecuted. 
Dinner being over on Fridays, Ingle was around remind- 
ing the fellows, and shortly he and his co-workers went 
off two by two to teach these humble, feeble folk the Way 
of Life. They looked forward to his coming on these 
visits, and enjoyed his fervent and helpful prayers. The 
old mammies always found him a ready and sympathetic 

The gratitude and appreciation of those among whom 
he worked was abundantly shown when John Miller, one 
of the Seminary dining-room servants, invited him and us 
to tea at his house. Ingle's common sense was shown by 
the way he handled the delicate situation. To refuse the 
invitation might unnecessarily hurt the negro's feelings, 
to accept it might be fraught with even worse results. He 
told John he would let him know about it. He called a 
conference of his fellow-workers, and advised an accep- 
tance of the invitation, believing that the negro would 
know his place. His faith was not misplaced. John met 
us at the door with apron on, hat in hand, and taking our 
hats, sat us down to an elegant supper, served by himself 
and his son, now an ordained Episcopal minister. 

Ingle's life, in a word, was devotion to duty. 

(Signed) Josiah E. Ellis. 

The second letter is from the viewpoint of one of Ingle's 
juniors : 

Frankfort, September 14, 1904. 

It is an exceedingly rare occurrence for a man to spend 

three years at any place like the Seminary and, without 

exception, be admired and loved by every teacher and every 

student and every neighbor and every servant with whom 



he is associated during the entire time. But I honestly 
believe this may be asserted of Ingle. 

He was a "senior" when I entered the Seminary; and 
"bishop" of the Negro Mission at St. Cyprian's Chapel, 
which of course flourished under his leadership. 

I remember distinctly the first time I talked with him. 
[One remembers a talk with Ingle. See Dedication. — Edi- 
tor.] A few weeks of the session had passed. I had heard 
the lower-class men praise him so often, I had gotten to 
look upon him as different from and vastly superior to most 
of us. One day, in the gymnasium, he stopped in the midst 
of some wonderful "Indian club" movements, came over 
to where I was, and asked me to take up work on his mis- 
sion. Even if I had not secretly felt highly honored, his 
simple, sincere manner would have won me, and I should 
have accepted without hesitation. And so he became my 
"bishop," which relationship lasted until he was ordained 
deacon and began making preparations for going to China. 

No teacher on the mission ever questioned what "Mr. 
Ingle" did or said. So far as their associations with him 
were concerned, to all practical purposes the doctrine of his 
infallibility in their minds was real and absolute. They 
did not think he could be mistaken. Whatever he said was 
the proper thing. Whatever he did was just right. All 
that he asked was done. I often wondered when, two years 
after, I had charge of the mission with some of those same 
teachers, what was the magic power which made such con- 
ditions possible. I knew that largely it was because he 
was right, because he had good judgment and discretion 
and was lovable ; but there must have been something else 
to make it possible to harmonize some dozen or more opin- 
ions and unite them into one. 

His last two or three months at the Seminary were very 
busy ones. He had undertaken to raise his own salary for 
the work in China. This meant frequent journeys to dif- 
ferent parts of the country. Early in April, if I remember 
rightly, he gave up the mission on "the hill," that he might 



have more time for these trips. One little incident oc- 
curred, in connection with his resignation, which, though 
a very small thing in itself, showed the spirit of the man. 

The teachers decided to make him sit with them in the 
chapel for a photograph. One of the students, a very good 
amateur, was to be the photographer. Their idea was to 
have him sit in the central foreground, with the teachers 
and other officers grouped around him. 

Not so! What he did was characteristic of him. No 
sooner had he appeared on the scene than he had the teach- 
ers and officers arrange themselves in the center, while he 
placed himself on one side, just back of them ; and the man 
who was about to succeed him in exactly the same position 
on the other side. With some men, it might seem to have 
been done for effect. It was nothing of the kind with him, 
but only a simple instance in which was evidenced that 
determined purpose which ever actuated him — to lose sight 
of himself. 

Apart from any human tendency to idealize those we 
love, it surely can be dispassionately said that Bishop Ingle 
was an uncommon man. In gifts and acquirements he was 
better than his fellows — certainly most of them. It never 
occurred to him that he was more gifted, more noble, of 
finer quality than men usually are ; and it never occurred 
to him that there was any modesty in his not thinking so. 
Herein consisted his true humility and his real greatness. 

(Signed) Austin B. Shinn. 

Some months before graduation, Ingle applied to the 
Board of Missions for appointment to its staff in China. 
His letters of application are, as usual, formal, but they 
exhibit two or three facts of interest. An earlier letter 
than those quoted makes it clear that Ingle was more than 
fearful of the effect of the altitude of the churchly atmo- 
sphere of Hankow, China, and that he greatly favored the 
reported ecclesiastical climate in the neighborhood of 
Shanghai, as likely to agree with his spiritual welfare. 


("Man proposeth," etc. He went to Hankow, and sur- 
vived the spiritual conditions he found there.) 

Again, we find that it was directly as the result of a 
visit and address of Archdeacon Thomson of Shanghai 
that Ingle determined to apply definitely for appointment 
to China, and that he greatly hoped to work under the lead- 
ership of that most lovable and winsome personality. Nei- 
ther did this hope fulfil itself. 

Theological Seminary, Alexandria, Virginia, 

December 27, 1890. 

As Mr. J. Addison Ingle wishes to apply to the Board 
for work in the Foreign Mission field, it gives me great 
pleasure, after personal and intimate knowledge of him for 
three years past, to testify both to his achievements as a 
student and his character as a Christian gentleman. Studi- 
ous, thorough, and brilliant, he took his place, at the be- 
ginning of his course, among the leaders of an exception- 
ally bright class, and has held it ever since with increasing 
commendation; while his pure, unselfish Christian deport- 
ment has endeared him to all, and his practical good judg- 
ment has made him a valued friend and wise counselor. 
He is the St. John of the Seminary. He is also a clear and 
effective speaker, and his consecration to the missionary 
cause has been marked by the highest motives and intelli- 
gent zeal. 

Besides, as a teacher in our Preparatory Department he 
has proved himself specially gifted and acceptable. He is 
well trained in every way, and fitted to be a brilliant orna- 
ment to the missionary forces of our Church. 

I can commend him without the slightest feeling of 
restraint, and congratulate the Board on the prospect of 
getting him. 

Yours, etc., 

(Signed) A. Crawford. 



Theological Seminary, November 24, 1890. 
Dr. Langford: 

Dear Sir — I am nearing the end of my course in the 
Seminary, and wish to go as a foreign missionary next 
year. I write to ask for information on a matter of great 
importance to me. My desire is to go to China. My plans 
had been laid to work in another field, and I had dis- 
missed China from my thoughts, when we had a visit from 
Eev. Mr. Thomson of Shanghai, who made us a simple ad- 
dress on China, and told us that he was going back alone 
to a field where he had worked (partly with Mr. Pott, I 
believe) for thirty years, during which time not one or- 
dained missionary had come to his help. He told us of 
the danger of the work's death when he and his companion 
die, and urged us to send some one to help him, as he is 
growing old and feeble. His address touched us all, and 
the thought that the work that our noble Bishop Boone 
started, which had been faithfully upheld by this old man, 
was in danger of failing through lack of workers, decided 
me to ask to be sent to his help. I cannot claim to be a 
worthy successor of either of these noble men, but the 
claim of the work itself, and the claim of the work as the 
work of men from our Seminary, determined me. Thus 
I feel called to this especial work, and if the Church will 
send me, I will go. 

I am very anxious to know definitely and soon whether 
or not I am going, and if going, to what field. Till then 
my mouth is practically shut, I can only vaguely talk about 
it, can make no appeals, and am powerless to arouse much 
interest among my friends. I wish to be able to say, "I 
am going to China, I have received my commission." Then 
I can talk. 

Now, you told me last spring that I had better not apply 
till February. But I think I can be much more useful 
and much happier and better fitted for my work if I know 
definitely before that time, and can make my plans ac- 



Flease try to make this possible, and let me hear as soon 
as possible your answer to my other questions. 

Very sincerely, 
(Signed) James Addison Ingle. 

Ingle's formal application was as follows : 

Frederick, Maryland, December 30, 1890. 
To the Secretary of the Board of Missions of the 
Protestant Episcopal Church: 

I hereby offer myself for missionary work in China, to 
assist the Rev. E. H. Thomson. 

I shall be twenty-four years old on March 11, 1891; 
was born and reside in Frederick, Maryland ; and was edu- 
cated at Frederick Academy until fifteen years of age. I 
then spent two years at the Episcopal High School near 
Alexandria, Virginia. Thence I went to the University 
of Virginia, where I spent three years, taking the degree 
of Master of Arts (1888). I am in the present senior 
class of the Theological Seminary of Virginia. I have had 
four years' experience of teaching, chiefly Greek. 

My health is good. My medical examiner pronounced 
me faultless. His statement is probably already in the 
hands of the Board. 

I expect to go as presbyter during the coming year, and 
my primary desire is to aid Rev. Mr. Thomson. If, how- 
ever, that place can be better supplied otherwise, and I be 
used to more advantage elsewhere, I am ready to work 

I expect to be ordained to the deaconate on the twenty- 
ninth day of January. I am very anxious to have the de- 
cision of the Board before that time. 

Very respectfully, 

(Signed) James Addison Ingle. 

P.S. — I inclose testimonials and my bishop's recommen- 
dation. I have deferred applying so long, waiting for the 

From present indications I expect to go unmarried. 



So closed the student days, and Ingle, being a full- 
grown man, went out into the larger life of men of action. 
In looking back at his life in college and seminary, it is 
not to be overlooked that in one particular it differed from 
the life of many who have afterward proved themselves 
greatly good : Ingle spent no years carelessly. He never did 
sow any wild oats, even of the less savagely wild variety. 
Hannington's university days were careless in the ex- 
treme, given over to pleasure and the pursuits of popu- 
larity and self-interest. Through all, it is true, there ran 
the strain of promise. That perfect love for his mother 
was enough to have redeemed Hannington's life from 
almost any depths. And he was a manly scapegrace and 
a lovable one. And there is a grandeur in his later con- 
quest of himself which holds out hope and inspiration to 
those whose early lives have passed and bear the marks of 
the world's wear and tear and power. But Ingle came into 
his manhood unspotted from the world, with no sign of 
earthly stain or record of wasted years. He had always 
been in deadly earnest, he had known and loved his Mas- 
ter always. The pure and childlike purpose of his heart 
had been forming and growing through the years, and had 
become a part of himself. There was a living, moving 
glory in his life from the very beginning of him. Both 
men were great men, and both men made good at the last, 
and no doubt it takes many kinds of saints to make up the 
citizenship in God's wide kingdom. 

James Addison Ingle was ordained deacon in All Saints' 
Church, Frederick, Maryland, January 29 — Thursday — 
1891, by Eight Eev. William Paret, D.D., LL.D., Bishop 
of Maryland. 

"On the Saturday preceding the ordination, one of those 
touching and intimate scenes occurred which were not 
common in the parish, but which were, happily, not so 
infrequent but that memories of more than one, perhaps 
not less tender than this, are treasured in the minds of 
those who shared them. A note of this one has been jeal- 
ously preserved, and from it these lines are quoted :" 



"Mr. Ingle advanced to the chancel steps and addressed 
us in the tender way in which he always spoke to his peo- 
ple, 'My beloved/ His quiet, beautifully modulated voice 
had a tone in it I had never heard before, and he said in 
effect : 

" 'You have been so much to me in the sorrows which 
have come to me, your tender sympathy has been shown 
so often in hours of bereavement, that I come before you 
to-day not only with a heart full of thanks for those evi- 
dences of your love, but also to ask you to share with me 
in my great jo} r . When my first-born son was laid in my 
arms, if I had been told that a wish, a single wish, would 
be granted me, I should have asked that he might be 
spared to grow up into a Christian manhood. If a second 
wish had been offered, I should have asked that he devote 
that life to the ministry of Christ's Church. And if, for 
the third time, I had been promised the granting of a 
wish, I should have prayed that he might become a messen- 
ger to those who know not our Lord. Now all of these 
wishes have been, or are to be, fulfilled, and I ask that 
you rejoice with me in my exceeding great joy/ " 

And again James Addison Ingle was ordained to the 
priesthood by Bishop Paret, at St. Paul's Church, Balti- 
more, Maryland, on the second Sunday after Trinity, June 
7, 1891. 

In the "Spirit of Missions" for March, 1891, there was 
made the following announcement : 

"China. — The Board of Managers, at its meeting Feb- 
ruary 10, acting for the missionary district of Shanghai, 
appointed the Rev. James Addison Ingle, of the senior 
class of the Theological Seminary of Virginia, missionary 
to China. Mr. Ingle's outfit and support have been espe- 
cially contributed." 

After appointment by the Board of Missions there was 
a period of six or eight months, occupied, by an arrange- 
ment between Ingle and the Board, in an endeavor to raise 
a certain amount toward his own support before leaving 



for China. This time was largely spent in deputation 
work, traveling about the country, and speaking on the 
general subject of missions. The required funds were 
raised, but probably the greater advantage to Ingle lay 
in the experience andinthemany friends and acquaintances 
that he made during this time, who stood him in good 
stead in the years to come. He developed considerable 
ability as a speaker, and his great charm of manner made 
a very positive impression. It is perhaps not sufficiently 
realized by the Home Church, however, that the mission- 
ary with a charm of manner is at a very positive advantage 
over his brother without the same, though their practical 
work in foreign lands may be equally good. (This is merely 
a side word for the man without the charm!) 



f <Btl)tv s&eep 3f ^ate tolricl) are not of tins folfc." 

f ^Hofit gracious (0OB, seno fortb t|)e ministers of CI)p 
WovXi anU Sacraments to gather together, tn all parts 
of tht toortti, tjje toanfcerinff anfc tie lost into Cl)p 
fcUsscfc flock." 


The missionary letters of James Addison Ingle, the pub- 
lication of which is the main purpose of this book, should 
be understood as not only of the nature of private cor- 
respondence, but almost without exception as coming 
under the head of "home letters." The great majority of 
them were written to the members of his immediate fam- 
ily, chiefly to his beloved father. 

The material at hand is ample. From the time of start- 
ing to within a very few days of his death, Ingle wrote 
home regularly, averaging often several letters a month, 
and that is a sufficient diary of any man's far-distant life 
and work. The attempt at anything more frequent than 
that would swamp the significant in an amount of detail 
that even the most gifted writer and the most long-suffer- 
ing reader would find equally irksome. 

The periods of his clerical and episcopal services are 
left largely to his own telling, and well so left. There is 
no need for any preliminary comments. Yet a brief note 
or two by the Editor may be of interest. 

The early letters are written with a pen, all the later 
ones on a machine ; the last is dictated. Wholesale cutting 
has been necessitated, but rarely has this been through 
lack of interest in the matter and rarely through desire 



to avoid an unfavorable impression. Occasionally the 
spirit of pure fun has led the writer into flights of amiable 
satire which were entirely harmless and without any slight- 
est sting of cruelty or cynicism. But Ingle was a born 
tease, and the imp of satire did once in a while take entire 
possession of his right arm, with the result that the Editor 
has enjoyed many a good laugh which, selfishly, he cannot 
bring himself to share with you, dear readers. There is 
one particularly delicious letter, a perfect masterpiece of 
mischief, and dealing with — but that is just what we are 
unable to say. What a pity, too ! 

It would be misleading in the extreme to say that Ingle 
was a humorist. The word would totally misrepresent the 
man, and yet he was at many times full of a most sweet 
and gentle humor, such humor as makes life pleasant and 
smooths the way and greases the wheels of society. And 
his life was essentially social. And, if anywhere on earth, 
the wheels in China need greasing and the ways smooth- 
ing. It should be a serious consideration of the House of 
Bishops, in selecting its candidates for the foreign field, 
that they should have a full measure of the sense of humor. 
The Bishop of Shanghai has it, and tells the best of stories 
and has the merriest of laughs. God grant us ever bishops 
that can laugh often and heartily. We need them, and, 
dear knows, they need themselves ! 

Ingle never dreamt that his letters would be published, 
as is evident ; but perhaps in their very naturalness will be 
found something more delightful than had he intended 
them for public reading. We employed a professional 
stenographer to copy these letters, with a view to publica- 
tion. It was a simple business arrangement. She was an 
unemotional person, there was nothing said or referred to 
between us to call for anything but the coldest and most 
callous interchange of orders, work, and checks. When 
paid for her completed work, she started for the door, and 
then, turning, said: "I would not have missed the chance 
of doing that work for anything that I can think of. I 



have grown to love that man and reverence his memory. I 
supposed, as I worked, that he was still living, until I 
came to the letters at the end ; and when I read about his 
death I cried like a child." What, then, of us who knew 
the man ? 

A brief quoted extract gives a synopsis of the first period 
of Ingle's missionary life, with which the letters deal. 

"Ingle left Frederick on October 12, 1891, and arrived 
in Shanghai on November 17. At that time the mission 
was without a bishop, and to a large extent every one did 
what was right in his own eyes. Ingle clearly expected to 
remain in Shanghai, and commenced the study of the lan- 
guage there; but on December 7 he received a letter from 
the Eev. Mr. Locke of Hankow, asking him to work in 
that city. He went to see the work, and removed perma- 
nently to Hankow early in January.' 



San Francisco, October 25, 1891. 
My dearest All: 

About three o'clock we started out to visit Chinatown, 
where from twenty to thirty thousand Chinese live. On 
the way I came across quite a dear university friend, Dr. 
Ben Brown. At the police station we found the clerk a 
Virginian, originally from Fairfax County. He secured 
us a nice guide and we went through the place. It seems 
to present a perfect picture of Chinese life, houses, shops, 
temples and all. Our guide was a well-known policeman, 
and never asked admittance, merely demanded it, and if 
it was not promptly given, called or hammered until he 
got it. He opened doors and walked in, and we followed. 
We were amazed at the squalor and wretchedness every- 
where. We went through black underground passages to 
a room about ten feet square, a horrible hole where a blind 
man lived, without a single opening for light or air. We 



could scarcely endure five minutes in it, and could not 
imagine living there. We went into their "Palace Hotel" 
[one of the leading hotels of San Francisco is called "The 
Palace." — Editor], a medium-size building, with little 
rooms above and under ground, where hundreds live and 
sleep, a dozen or more in a little hole about ten by fifteen 
feet. Many of these places were private opium-dens, and 
their occupants confirmed smokers. Our guide took us 
into gambling-rooms which had been raided by the police 
and the thick doors of Australian iron- wood (very costly), 
studded with iron bolts, cut through with axes and sledge- 
hammers by the officers. He says that when at last the 
police break open the door, or it is opened from within, 
they find the room full of meek Chinamen sitting around, 
smoking their pipes as placidly as if a mile from disturb- 
ance. When questioned they reply, "No savvy talk." 
While the door is being burst through all signs of the 
gambling have been taken into the next room and dumped 
into a sewer. So it is very hard to convict them. 

We went into their restaurants, some parts of which 
are handsomely furnished, with carving and tapestry about 
the walls. We saw a group eating in a cheaper room, hold- 
ing the bowls of rice to their mouths and shoveling into 
their mouths with chopsticks. They made no objection 
to our entrance, but were unwilling to have us watch them 
long. So we went up-stairs, where an old gentleman was 
playing dominoes with two or three girls. Our guide 
walked into the room without any invitation, and we fol- 
lowed. But the rudeness of our entrance was too much 
for me, though they made no objection, and I suggested 
that we withdraw. So we did. 

We went into the Joss house or temple (Joss from (?) 
Bios, God) . The lower floor had its walls lined with small 
figures (about two feet high) representing their famous 
actors and actresses. The upper floor was the temple 
proper, where are the idols, hideous fat images before 
which incense burns constantly. Offerings of candy, etc., 



were before one of these, and the room was full of quaint 
metal urns, immense swords, and queer banners. There 
was an oven, too, where, according to the guide, prayers 
written on paper are burned. Here is heathenism in full 

We noticed how pleased the men seemed to be with any 
attention paid to their children. The little ones, too, were 
very amusing, skipping and dancing along in queer cos- 
tume, with pigtail flying in the air. Paxton snapped his 
finger at a boy of about seven years, and the child fol- 
lowed us half a square, dancing beside us and cracking 
hie fingers as Paxton had done. They were full of interest 
to us, and we saw many pleasant faces among them. [San 
Francisco's Chinatown was destroyed by the earthquake 
and fire. — Editor.] 

Pacific Ocean", Tuesday, October 27, 1891. 

You who have been at sea know what it is to feel light 
as a feather when the vessel goes down, and heavy as lead 
when she rises, to walk at an angle of forty-five degrees, 
and seem to be trying to climb the side of a house. We 
have had some absurd sliding and lunging. Last night I 
was lying stretched out just where Paxton took his start 
for the slide. [ "Paxton' s slide" happened previously and 
is not quoted. — Editor.] A young lady undertook to cross 
the room, when a sudden lurch started her in my direction. 
She tried to stop, but in vain. Arms out, leaning like a 
person sliding down a hill backward, she came on straight 
for me. I saw her coming, raised myself and awaited the 
onslaught. I opened my arms (to prevent her striking the 
wall) . On she came, careening like a little bark in a heavy 
sea, on straight into the harbor of my arms. She did n't 
stay there long. She seemed embarrassed, while Paxton, 
who had been spun out into the floor, thought it rich, 
rare, and racy. 

This young lady is a Baptist missionary, on her way to 
Canton. She is Miss Claudia J. White from Eockerville. 


She is slight and delicate-looking, with a sweet face and 
quite unassuming manners. She is traveling alone to 
China, and will probably be the only lady passenger from 
Yokohama to Hong Kong. There is a quiet earnestness 
about her that is as good as a sermon (I know you are glad 
I am engaged) . She has just returned from the steerage, 
where she has been talking to some Chinese women. She 
goes there every day; once or twice I have been with her 
there or on deck when she stopped to talk to some of the 
crew or steerage passengers who were airing themselves. 
The Chinese are constitutional gamblers, with dominoes 
especially, and we can find a game always going on. She 
stopped and talked "the Doctrine" 1 to them. They were 
all very polite, even when gambling. When she was talk- 
ing a crowd gathered about us and began to talk about the 
Doctrine. She would tell them as best she could the story 
of the Gospel, and regularly discuss it with them. They 
are ready to listen and anxious to talk about such things. 
If some seemed to be unappreciative, one or another would 
often side with Miss White, explain something to help her, 
and reproach the others for their lack of appreciation and 
respect. [Very characteristic and often of great help to 
the foreigner. The first Chinese to catch the idea, or 
think he does so, interrupts and explains it. Naturally, 
there are elements of danger. — Editor.] They have great 
respect for teachers. She carried with her a roll with about 
twenty Bible pictures, which she showed to the men and 
explained as if they were children. There were about 
twelve or fifteen men always about us, crew and passengers, 
and their earnest and often pleasant and intelligent faces 
had a great charm for me. They asked me to speak, and I 
did talk a little and they said they understood. 

All the crew of the vessel are Chinese, and all the waiters 
but one (Japanese) are the same, and I never saw better 
waiters and servants. Most of them can talk a little Eng- 

l << Dau-li ,, is the common expression for any formal doc- 
trine.— Editor. 



lish, and all understand it pretty well. Bob 1 has used his 
call-bell about twenty-five times a day since he has been 
aboard, and has found the waiters always polite and effi- 
cient. The captain and officers are also all polite and 

This afternoon (Wednesday, 28th) Miss White had a 
notice written in Chinese and posted in the steerage, say- 
ing that the teachers would be there each day at 2.30. So 
we went. Paxton led the singing, and we three sang Gos- 
pel hymns. Then I explained Bible pictures from the col- 
ored chart and she interpreted. About ten feet away men 
were noisily gambling with dominoes, and at about the 
same distance men lay smoking opium, but about thirty 
gathered around us and listened like children, asking us 
to go on when we stopped. They are earnest, polite, and 
attentive, and would shame any similarly composed Amer- 
ican crowd I ever saw. They do not take in all that we 
have to say, for Miss White's Chinese is limited and some- 
what defective, but they are always ready to help her with 
the proper word [often the improper word. — Editor], 
when it fails her. We stayed with them about three quar- 
ters of an hour, and found two Christian boys among 
them, making six Christians among them of whom we 
know, out of about three hundred and sixty-nine China- 
men. This evening, about six o'clock, I found Miss White 
out on deck talking to a little knot of sailors. She was 
trying to make them understand something about the 
Holy Spirit, and they seemed anxious to learn, but she had 
difficulty, as you may imagine, especially as her Chinese 
was so limited. Several of the men have children whom 
they say they wish to send to school in Canton. There 
are certain of the men who are in almost every crowd 
about her and ask her questions. One in particular, a big 
jolly fellow, seems to wish her to talk incessantly. Yet 
they are thoughtful of her comfort. Twice they gave her 

i Eev. Kobert Massie and his wife sailed for Shanghai with 



a chair while she was standing on deck talking to them, 
and this evening one said, "You no have time talk any 
more, you must be tired. Wantee sit down?" She told 
him, "No," that the only thing that made her really tired 
was the limited knowledge of Chinese she had, while she 
had so many things to tell them. "You talk velly good 
when get to Canton," he replied. She says that she has 
never met with a rebuff or any rudeness from any of them 
when she talked with them, but has always found them 
nice and polite. They consider it proper to ask your age, 
your parents' ages, occupation, why you left them, whether 
you send them money, what your coat cost, how you put 
your shoes on, how much your cuff -buttons cost, and vari- 
ous other questions which to us would savor of imperti- 
nence. There are many interesting faces even among these 
rough sailors, and I doubt if you could find a jollier or 
better-behaved crowd anywhere, while the cabin waiters are 

Miss White lent one of her Chinese books to Al Fat, a 
bright waiter. He read and returned it. Not long after, 
as he passed the picture-roll, he stopped and began to ex- 
plain it to some of the men. They listened well, for he 
was an excellent talker. He told about Daniel and the 
lions. "Do you think those lions ate him up?" he asked. 
"Not a bit of it." He read from the book the healing of 
the withered hand. "Do you suppose he stretched out his 
hand? Of course he did" (stretching out his own hand), 
"and it was made well." Miss White was listening to him 
from a neighboring state-room, where she was visiting 
some Chinese women. He said to her, " Teacher, I talked 
a lot of doctrine, did n't I? And did n't those men lis- 
ten?" She says he is really quite eloquent ("mouth-luck" 
they call it). She told him so, and said that he ought to 
give himself to God. But this did not seem to suit his 
fancy. When he gave her back the book, he said, referring 
to Jesus, "He heals well." 

Her talks with the sailors on deck are more interesting 



than with the crowds below. They gather about her as 
soon as she stops, and talk freely and ask questions. Great, 
big, rough men bend over her as she holds the Chinese 
book, and read aloud in their queer way. Two nights ago, 
as we came along the deck, the Chinese boatswain, Lung 
Yui, motioned to her to be quiet, and pointed out a 
man near by. He was standing, leaning against the cabin, 
holding on with one hand, and with the other holding a 
little Chinese book to the dim light of a swinging lantern. 
He was slowly and laboriously reading aloud something 
about the Fourth Commandment. He read for about five 
minutes before he saw us, and then stopped to talk. Last 
night I heard him singing the Chinese "Jesoo or' ngot" 
("Jesus loves me"). Miss White got a Chinese hymn- 
book, and for an hour and a half he sat beside her and 
read aloud Chinese hymns, while an old man sat by and 
listened. Meanwhile I was explaining to Lung Yui the 
pictures in an illustrated life of Jesus. As I told him 
about the miracles and the parables, he said, "Good, good. 
All velly good." He is a nice fellow with a very pleasant 
face. He told me he had two wives, one in Canton, the 
other in Hong Kong (a wise disposition of forces). He 
has only one child, a boy of six. "What is his name?" 
"Me no give him name; call him littel boy' aller time." 
"Is he good ?" "No ; he play in street aller time, come in 
mud on foot, mud on clo'es, mud all over. I say, 'Gettee 
you no more clo'es/ He say, 'My mudder gettee me clo'es.' 
I sendee him school one year." 

I have become so used to the appearance of these Chi- 
nese that they no longer seem strange, and I find them as 
kind and considerate as any men I ever met. There seems 
to be a native politeness about them which is entirely want- 
ing in our lower classes. We have met none who are really 
educated, yet a number of them read Chinese and many 
can talk a little English. Some really talk it well, and the 
young ones seem to be very anxious to learn both Chinese 
and English. 



To-day is beautiful and bright (Thursday, November 
5), and we are within three or four days of Yokohama. 

I don't think I have told you that we had no Monday 
this week. The second of November was dropped as com- 
pletely from our calendar as if it had no existence. On 
Saturday we crossed one hundred and eighty degrees 
longitude, and as that is the dividing line of two hemi- 
spheres, we must be different in time from you a day. But 
instead of dropping Sunday, the proper one according to 
rule, being the day following the day of crossing, we 
dropped Monday, so as to allow the crew immunities which 
come with Sunday. As a result, this week will have only 
six days. Before dropping the day we were steadily fall- 
ing behind you in time, setting back the clock about twenty 
minutes each day, which, however, makes it [now that the 
meridian is crossed. — Editor] about fourteen hours later 
here, so while it is 10.30 a.m. Friday here, in the East [the 
Eastern States — west to the Far East. — Editor] it is 
about 8 p.m. of Thursday. We have had two Sunday ser- 
vices, and I spoke both times. 

The officers and employees of the boat seem to be pleas- 
ant men, but none of them, as far as I know, are Chris- 
tians. The surgeon seems to know his business, but 
does n't care much for the Chinese. Miss White asked him 
to visit a sick Chinaman. This was about four o'clock. 
He said he would go about 7.30, but that he would n't 
give him medicine, even if he knew it would save his life. 
This seems quite heartless, yet he has some excuse. [Medi- 
cal missionaries daily face just such complications. — Edi- 
tor.] When a Chinaman dies on board he is embalmed 
and taken to China. The surgeon gets about twelve dollars 
for doing this. He said that another surgeon doctored sev- 
eral Chinese who died. The Chinese said that he had killed 
them to get the money for embalming them, consequently 
they brought such pressure to bear that he was discharged. 

The captain is something of a sphinx. It is almost 
impossible to get any definite information out of him. 



The only way in which to have the faintest chance of gain- 
ing even an indirect reply is by letting your tone and man- 
ner indicate somewhat as follows: "0 sage, who peerest 
into the abyss of a thousand eternities, and overrunnest 
the universe in the circumference of thy boundless intel- 
lect, deign to enlighten thy servant, a dog, an outcast from 
the paradise of nautical lore, who hangs trembling upon 
each utterance of thy revered lips." This sometimes works, 
sometimes it does n't. 

This evening Miss White saw a shrine in the steerage. 
In a recess of covered wood hung a large Chinese charac- 
ter, meaning "God," before no idol or image, and it seemed 
like the altar on Mars Hill, an offering to the unknown 
God. Many of the people say that they worship God, and 
many say that they care nothing for the idols. Some, 
however, say that they love the idols. 

Yesterday was delightful; the air was balmy and the 
water smooth. Bob preached in Social Hall. Five Chris- 
tian Chinamen [the Chinese do not like this word. — Edi- 
tor] were present. In the afternoon we had our usual 
steerage meeting — but what surroundings for a ser- 
vice ! A yard to my left stood a barber shaving a man's 
head; in front were opium and tobacco smokers, and an 
excited and noisy crowd of gamblers; just behind us was 
some one energetically picking the mandolin ; above us, on 
deck, a large iron windlass was noisily winding up the 
immense anchor-chain; and even among our audience a 
number of cigarettes and pipes were in full blast. But 
despite these difficulties, we had a rather encouraging 
meeting. Some of the men have a wondering expression, 
others look interested, some wistful, some incredulous. 
One woman was in the crowd yesterday. There are a 
number of things in their religion which form excellent 
bases for what we have to teach. They are prepared to 
believe miracles; they recognize the evils of polygamy, 
opium-smoking, and gambling, though they are wedded 
to all three; they assent to the Ten Commandments as 



good, and recognize the obligation to do as they say in 
most respects. Many care nothing for their idols. 

Probably we shall not see land until this afternoon [the 
first glimpse of land is often the peak of Fuji, which may 
be seen seventy-five miles distant. — Editor], and we ex- 
pect to land either this evening or to-morrow morning. 
We think our vessel for Shanghai leaves to-morrow noon. 
If so, we expect to have some fun on land to-night. 

Inland Sea, Japan, November 14, 1891. 

The vessel anchored about seven o'clock, and our party 
went ashore in a steam-launch. At a word from the porter 
there was a scampering of feet and whirling of wheels 
across the street, and four or five jinrikisha men were upon 
us. They are very absurd-looking fellows. They wear a 
sort of loose-fitting tights (a contradiction in terms, I 
know, but my only way to express it), and are either bare- 
headed or covered with a hat that looks like an inverted 

On the way to the hotel and afterward we heard con- 
stantly a peculiar whistle, which we thought was a police- 
man's signal. It turned out to be the notice given by the 
massage doctors who parade the streets and are called in 
when needed. 1 We passed a comfortable night, and after 
an early breakfast (excellent, Japanese beef being famous) 
secured our tickets and went back to the City of Peking to 
say good-by to our friends and arrange for the transfer of 
our baggage to the Yokohama Mam? our new home for a 
week. We went over in a sampan, another Japanese curio. 
I do not know who invented it, certainly some antedilu- 
vian. (By the way, we read that the rickshaw was the 
invention of a Yankee missionary.) It (the sampan) is 
sculled with one or two or more oars made of two pieces of 
wood bound together, so as to secure the proper bend. 
The motion of rowing seems to be borrowed from that of 

i Usually blind men.— Editor. 
2 Ship.— Editor. 



a fish's tail. The men stand while they row. In most of 
the boats there was a small boy, from eight to fifteen years 
old, at the forward oar on the right, while an older boy or 
man wielded the stern oar. They wear little more than no 
clothes, generally a breech-cloth, and sometimes over it a 
loose robe (looks like a demoralized dressing-gown) 
strapped at the waist, and offer splendid opportunities for 
the study of anatomy. Their legs are entirely bare, and 



T »'* ** A SA^V. 

are beautifully developed. We have been struck with the 
beautiful display of muscle in the legs of the sampan and 
rickshaw men. They would shame almost any college 
athlete I ever saw. 

After our ride we had tiffin at the hotel and set out for 
the Yokohama Maru. We reached Kobe about 12 p.m. 
of Wednesday and anchored Thursday morning. Mr. 
Oltman piloted Paxton and me about the place. He has 
been in Japan five years. We went to a museum full of 
all sorts of pretty things. 

I had no idea how useful the bamboos were until I en- 
tered a bamboo store. They make everything of it, from 
bird-cages and pens to houses. The shopkeepers are very 

[48 3 


polite and anxious to show their wares. The bow these 
people make is much more real than ours. They bend the 
entire upper part of their body when they take off their 
hats to you. I saw two boys bow to each other as they 
parted on the street. Paxton and I practised it, but have 
not yet fully mastered it. Bob has gotten hold of several 
Japanese phrases which he slings right and left. He said 
to his washwoman, "Sei-yo-na-ra" ("Since it must be so"), 
their parting speech, and she broke into a broad grin. 

Before we awoke the next morning, the vessel was under 
way in the Inland Sea. I cannot describe it; you must 
wait to see it. It varies in width, I should say from twenty- 
five miles to less than a mile at the Straits of Shimonoseki 
(how ? s that for a name?). It is just like a great lake, 
girt in with hills and studded with islands. The scenery 
is magnificent. Some of the hills are bare and barren, 
others are beautifully terraced from top to bottom, and 
marked with lines of green plants. Many villages are 
stretched along the beach, and hamlets nestle cozily in the 
clefts between hills. The water is perfectly still and dotted 
with boats of all kinds. Now and then we see a lighthouse 
perched on some island bluff or pass a vessel flying the 
Japanese flag. Often, as we look ahead, we see land on all 
sides and no exit. But as we round some headland the way 
opens before us. This morning at seven we stopped at the 
village of Shimonoseki for coal. We were soon surrounded 
by a throng of boats waiting to unload. You ought to see 
them work! About forty men and women form a line 
from the boat to the ship, and as the little round baskets 
are filled with coal, they are rapidly passed along the line 
and emptied into the hold. The men, I am told, get twenty 
cents a day, and the women nine cents, but they load the 
vessel much more rapidly and cheaply, I imagine, than 
could be done with a steam-derrick. All the people we 
have seen in Japan are small, the women quite small. 
Some are quite pretty, though I think I have seen Ameri- 
can girls I like better. They all wear the loose full robe 



with lay sleeves. They wear a most remarkable con- 
trivance in the rear. It looks like a door-mat. It is sim- 
ply a rectangular piece of goods, about 3 feet by IV2 ieet, 
I judge, which is tucked under the belt and left to hang 
there. It may be an ever-present cushion, for all I know. 
The robes are crossed over the breast, leaving a V-neck. 
They are, as I have said, very full, and the proper way to 
carry babies is to stick them down the back of the mother's 
neck. When they grow large they are carried in the old 
style, pick-a-back. 

We expect to reach Nagasaki to-night and go on shore 
to-morrow to service and to visit some friends. I shall 
write from Shanghai about what I see there. 


|/^-« i/x-jk^^r is? * & 


St. John's College, Shanghai, November 18, 1891. 
Dearest All: 

I 11 begin in Nagasaki, where I mailed my last letter. 
Sunday morning Mr. Oltman took us ashore and to his 
house, where we met his wife and a Mr. Stout, a mission- 
ary. Mr. Oltman then took us to a Japanese service, and 
we sat during a sermon, of which we understood nothing. 




We then went to a little English chapel and heard Bishop 
Bickersteth of Exeter preach. Thence we went to lunch 
with Dr. Abercrombie, United States consul to Nagasaki. 
It is one of the prettiest places I ever saw. Most of the 
sights we had 
already seen in A^. o^ul*.^, a^u^ c*^ «"«^ 

other places, 
but two caught 
my eye. One 
was a girl's 
hat. It looked, 
like a circu- 
lar lamp-mat, 
made of little 
strips of bam- 
boo, and was 
perched on 
her head like 
thatch on a 
house. It was 
quite taking. 

The other was a new (I understand it is the ancient) style 
of hair-dressing. I saw this one on a man. The old fel- 
low had shaved all the hair off the top of his head. On 
the back he had let one lock grow long. This had been 
carefully gathered into cylindrical form, tied together in 
a sort of elbow, and aimed along the top of his bare head 
like a pistol barrel. I think he had glued it together with 
some sort of pomade. It reminded me strongly of one of 
those circular lamp-wicks, badly charred. We left Naga- 
saki at 4 p.m. As we reached the sea we passed the island 
of Poppenberg, said to have been the scene of a massa- 
cre of native Christians a couple of centuries ago. Some 
were thrown from its top into the sea, others crowded on 
barges which were sunk. It is a steep and rocky little 
island, about one hundred and fifty feet high, I judge, a 
suitable place for such operations, but the story is rather 



discredited. We were now on the Yellow Sea, two days 
from China. 

About eleven o'clock Tuesday we anchored at the mouth 
of the stream on which Shanghai lies, opposite the town 
and forts of Woo Sung. As the tide soon rose, we left the 
Yang-tse and sailed up this river. A great many boats 
were on it, and the fields alongside were quite alive with 
men and women. The country is perfectly flat and seems 
only a foot above the river, so that it can be easily flooded. 
A number of irrigating ditches were cut from the river, 
and the little fields were divided, as in Japan, by raised 
walks. There are no fences. The whole country is studded 
with little mounds on circular or oval bases and from 
three to six feet high. These are tombs and sacred. They 
must on no account be disturbed. As there must have 
been hundreds in the little range of my vision, I judged 
that a vast amount of land must be wasted (for agricul- 
ture) when the whole country is taken into account. We 
saw an ingenious fishing arrangement, which our artist 
has undertaken to reproduce. 

About £.30 p.m. we came opposite the pier in Shanghai, 
and after an hour's manceuvering (for the current is very 
troublesome), reached it. At first I thought no one had 
come to meet me, but soon Mr. Yen, a Chinese minister, 



found me, took me to his house, gave me a cup of tea, and 
took me to the telegraph office. Mr. Yen then sent me to 
St. John's College, five miles west, in a carriage. I found 
I was booked to stay with Rev. Mr. Pott. 1 I found him in 
chapel just after evening service, and he took me to his 
home, where I met his wife, a Chinese lady. She speaks 
excellent English and is as nice a hostess and housekeeper 
as any one could wish. He has a very comfortable house 
here, nicely, not handsomely furnished, and seems quite 
satisfied. He has a fine boy of nine months. 2 Last night 
we called on some of the mission people. I met Mrs. 
Bishop Boone, a fine-looking lady in widow's weeds. Then 
I saw Mr. and Mrs. Smalley, Dr. and Mrs. Matthews (all 
Canadians), Mrs. Matthews, a daughter of Archdeacon 
Kirkby, and Miss Dodson 3 of Wytheville, Virginia. These 
are the only foreigners employed in the college and school. 
They were all pleasant, but there is a something about 
most English people that prevents our ever being close 
friends and understanding each other. 4 Mr. Pott has 
given me a room in his house, which I am to keep until 
the Massies come and we are settled. We three are to have 
one of the college houses together — at any rate, for the 
present. Meanwhile, I am very comfortably fixed. 

This morning I went through the college building. The 
mission compound is a beautiful place, and the chapel a 
pretty structure, but most of the other buildings ought to 
be replaced, though they manage to serve their purpose. 
There are about ninety boys in the college, of all grades. 
In the lower rooms, where the little boys were studying 
Chinese, they were screaming it out at the pitch of their 

1 Dr. F. L. H. Pott, now president of St. John's University.— 

2 Mr. James Pott, now a member of the mission. — Editor. 

a Still principal of St. Mary 's School, which has grown to large 
proportions. — Editor. 

4 This remark is not expunged because of its interest as a mis- 
taken first impression. Ingle's whole after life disproved it, and 
he was devoted to many English friends and much loved in re- 
turn.— Editor. 



lungs. You could hear them fifty yards off, and might be 
puzzled to know whether they were singing, praying, or 
fighting. In the other rooms order was kept. 

I saw some of the writing and spelling of a roomful of 
young boys, and it was excellent. The dormitories were 
nice and clean. Then Mrs. Pott took me to the girls' 
school, where about forty girls are taught. Miss Dodson 
has charge of them. It was recess when we called, but I 
had an opportunity to hear them recite, and both they and 
the boys seem to be brighter than any school children I 
ever saw at home. Some of the girls are really pretty. 
Our next visit was to the orphanage. Here girls are raised 
who have been bought. It amounts to that. Mothers who 
are about to kill or desert their girls are sometimes willing 
to bring them to the mission and receive twenty cents for 
their trouble. [I bought a girl child as late as 1907 for a 
nominal price and placed her in the orphanage. She was 
about to be sold as a slave. — Editor.] The little one is 
raised, and, when old enough, drafted into the girls' school. 
There are, I think, about thirty babies here. Thirteen lit- 
tle ones, between three and four years old, were down-stairs 
and gathered around us. They are a perfect treat in their 
queer blue suits with wide pantaloons. ( For you doubtless 
know that in China all the ladies wear bifurcated skirts, 
otherwise called pantaloons.) 

These people are ahead of the Japs in their ordinary 
modes of traveling ; that is, they have more modes. I have 
seen a great many horses and carriages (though many of 
Ihem are the property of foreigners), and all of the horses 
I have seen are very small and insignificant. The cows 
are buffalo cows, I think, and queer-looking beasts at that. 
[There are also the water buffalos. — Editor.] The Eng- 
lish are largely in the majority here, and things take their 
hue from them. The women that I have seen are very 
different from those I am used to. 

The policemen in the English and American concession 
are Indians (not American Indians), splendid-looking fel- 



lows, dark, with curly black heads, six feet tall or over, 
and wear on their heads tremendous turbans of red. They 
are most imposing. 

I forgot to tell you of an experience of ours on ship- 
board. Early Tuesday morning, near the mouth of the 
Yang-tse, the officer on duty heard calls across the water, 
and soon descried several men apparently in the water. 
A boat was sent for them, and they proved to be four sur- 
vivors of a wrecked Chinese junk. They had fastened 
spars and logs across a boat, forming a raft, and had 
floated thus, partly under water, for twenty-four hours. 
There were four dead bodies on the raft with them, and 
fourteen others had been lost. One of these four survivors 
was temporarily crazy. They were cared for on the ship, 
and a subscription taken up among the crew and passen- 
gers to help them. [Distress signals from junks far out at 
sea are common. Occasionally they are merely designs to 
obtain free food from the gentle foreigner. — Editor.] 

I must close so as to get this in a mail which leaves 
to-morrow. I hear that our boxes, via Suez, may not 
reach us for months. 

I have seen the house we are to live in, and I think it 
will be very comfortable. Began Chinese to-day. Don't 
know what to say about it. Will tell you later. 

St. John's College, Shanghai, November 26, 1891. 
Dearest All : 

We find everybody here very nice, and I like Mr. Pott 
especially. There is a surpliced choir of Chinese boys, and, 
in chanting, the two sides of the congregation sing re- 
sponsively, but there is no foolishness, and I am well 
pleased. The school buildings cost only $5000 and were 
warranted for ten years. They have already stood longer 
than that time. (As a sample of Chinese building I would 
mention that when one of the gentlemen suggested to a 
builder that his wall was out of plumb, he braced himself 
with his back against it and pushed it into place.) Mr. 



Pott is anxious to go to America and try to get money for 
better buildings. 1 With such, a first-rate college could be 
put up here. The place is a splendid one for such an insti- 
tution, far enough (from Shanghai) to avoid nuisances, 
and near enough for most needs. The canal which goes to 
Soo Chow bends around the ground so that we are on a 
peninsula. From my window I look out on the boats pass- 
ing by all the time, driven partly by sails, partly by oars, 
sometimes dragged by men (taking the place of mules at 
home), and sometimes propelled by wheels. The passenger 
boats which go to Soo Chow have a wheel under the stern 
which is turned by a number of men walking on the flukes 
of the wheel, or on something which connects with it, just 
like a tread-mill. I saw one boat — the mail-boat — curiously 
moved. The man lay in the stern and steered with an oar, 
while with his right foot he rowed with another oar, push- 
ing it, instead of pulling, as we do. It is a curious sight 
to look over the fields and see for a mile tall, square-topped 
sails gliding through the meadows, the boats being hidden 
entirely by the banks. Dr. Henry Boone stopped here 
recently to see me. He and his wife and two children had 
been living for some time on a house-boat, cooking, eating, 
and sleeping in it, while he visited his stations. 

The other evening, while walking, we saw some Taoist 
performances in the little village just outside our gates. 
Some one had died and the priests were sent for. They 
placed several tables end to end, and another upon them. 
Then, amid beating of drums and sounding of bag-pipes 
( ?), the soul was supposed to pass over this bridge from 
some place to some other place. We afterward saw the 
coffin set out in the field. 

A new grave mound was recently put up near my win- 
dow. No one is buried there, but the luck-doctor said that 
if a neighboring knoll was occupied the Fung Shui 2 of 

i It is still said of Dr. Pott that every time he returns from 
America he brings a new building in his pocket. — Editor. 
2 Wind and water, luck.— Editor. 



this place would be ruined and the place useless. So it was 

I have been amused at the number of meals people eat 
in this country. I mean foreigners, of course. At seven 
the boy brings me a cup of tea and some little biscuits, 
which I take in bed. At eight is breakfast. At 12.30 is 
lunch ("tiffin"). At four, if I am in the house, he brings 
me tea and little cakes, and at 6.30 we have dinner. This 
style has some good features, but I don't think we shall 
keep it up. 1 

I find that all the missionaries here believe in marrying, 
but from my own observation I am constrained to remark 
that not many pretty girls are called to this part of the 
country. So much the more reason, say I, for letting these 
benighted foreigners see a really pretty girl. Of course I 
have found exceptions. 

I find that not even in China are servants perfect. We 
are told that for the first year we must expect to be 
"squeezed" most unmercifully by everybody, including 
one's own servants. When you can talk well, and have 
studied them for a while, you can circumvent them some- 
what; but they consider foreigners their lawful prey, and 
cheat you on every occasion. They do all the marketing, 
and consider a certain commission (ten per cent, among 
the honest (?) ones) their due, and take it whether you 
will or not. I am told that most of them belong to guilds 
which allow them to do only certain kinds of work. Your 
cook will not fix the beds or bring water. A repairer of 
Chinese shoes declined to mend a pair of foreign shoes, 
because they fell within the sphere of a neighboring cob- 
bler. [He was probably either superstitious or desired to 
shirk the job. — Editor.] As a result, every family must 
have several servants, and their joint duties scarcely allow 
the master to do anything for himself. If he undertakes 
to do so, he falls in their estimation. The ordinary wages 

i N.B. ' ' We ' ' did ! —Editor. 


of a servant is six dollars 1 a month, and he feeds himself, 
for they will not eat our horrid food. You can see that 
there are great advantages and disadvantages in this sys- 

St. John's College, Shanghai, December 3, 1891. 
Dearest All: 

I wish you could hear some of this pidgin English. 
"Pidgin" is the Chinese way of pronouncing "business." 
So the missionary is said to be doing "Josh pidgin," 
"God's business." It is a real language, an adaptation of 
English to Chinese thought and expression. It embodies 
any good expression from any language, including Angli- 
cized Chinese or Chinesed English — I hardly know which. 
The following description of the purchase of a pair of 
turkeys is a simple example. It is genuine. "Missy, have 
catchee two piecee turkee; one piecee makee lay egg, one 
piecee no can." Bob quite upset his wife and me when he 
said to one of the servants, "Ah Sung, talkee boy, makee 
one lamp full oil." Sometimes it is very hard to under- 

I was thinking on Tuesday night, as I was whirling in 
a rickshaw through the crowded streets, how impossible 
it is to give in words any idea of this country. The at- 
mosphere is a different one — a dangerous one, I think, in 
a moral sense. The mere fact that you are seated in a car 
drawn by a man instead of a horse, puts him immeasurably 
below you, and makes you, despite all your training, re- 
gard him as more an animal than an immortal being. But 
now and then you are painfully impressed with the human- 
ity and the weakness of the people. Not many nights ago 
I heard a sound, regularly repeated, that sounded strange 
to me. I found out it was the Chinese death-watch. As 
the person is seen to be dying, some one mounts the roof, 
and at short intervals utters the wail of the departing 

l Mexican currency, varying with the value of silver. Wages 
are much higher now. — Editor. 



spirit, "Come back! Come back!" Another, on the 
ground, answers each time, "Coming ! Coming !" And so 
they do for hours until the invalid dies or improves. It 
is very sad and very impressive. 
Best love to everybody, 

Lovingly yours, J. A. I. 

P.S. — You may be interested to know that I have had 
to give up my own name and take the nearest sound to it 
which the Chinese can pronounce. I am now called 
"Yoong," but continue to address letters as heretofore. 1 

St. John's College, Shanghai, December 11, 1891. 
Dearest All : 

Recently I got a letter from Mr. Locke in Hankow, 
more than six hundred miles up the river, asking me to 
come to help him. He has a large and successful work 
and needs help badly. More than that, he expects to re- 
turn home in a year or two to educate his children, and 
wants some one to take charge of his work. I have not yet 
accepted his offer, but I expect to go up on the boat this 
evening to see him and the work, and decide about it after 
I return to this place, for I hope to spend Christmas with 
the Massies. It takes between three and four days to reach 
Hankow, and I expect to spend three or four days there. 
I do not know whether we can get on together, for the men 
there differ, I am told, very much from my views. Hankow 
is not as nice as Shanghai, for some reasons, but the work 
is more active and encouraging. I shall write to you when 
I decide. One of the least pleasant features of going is 
that the Massies will not be with me, but will remain here. 
They seem to hope I will stay here. 

At last I am in our house. I have furnished our rooms, 
bedroom and study, sleep and study here, and take my 
meals with Mr. Pott. Yesterday a convocation of the 

i" Yoong' ' in Shanghai dialect, later pronounced " Yin"— the 
Mandarin of it.— Editor. 



clergy of this neighborhood was held here, and about 
twenty came. At five o'clock a big Chinese dinner ("chow" 
it is called) was given them by Mr. Pott, and Bob and I 
went. Of course no ladies were allowed. I wish you could 
have seen the viands. There were about fifteen courses — 
bird's-nest soup with pigeons' eggs, shark fins, meat of 
every imaginable and unimaginable kind, all cut up before 
it was put on the table. Of course we all used chop-sticks, 
and I became quite expert — took to them from the first. 
For soup and sauces we had little china spoons. A dish 
of each course is put in the center of the table, and each 
one pokes his chop-stick or spoon in and helps himself. 
It is a mark of politeness to fish out something with one's 
chop-stick and put it on a guest's plate. One man insisted 
on doing this for Bob, in spite of his repeated protesta- 
tions that he had enough, and to his supreme disgust. I 
was so successful with my sticks that I generally escaped 
this attention. I am invited to dine with Mr. Yen, our 
native clergyman in Shanghai, this evening, on my way 
to the boat. I don't know what style he will put on. He 
is very nice and hospitable. He congratulated me on being 
engaged. Said if I should go to Hankow, I would find it 
rather a lonely place, and it was not a good place for a 
fellow to be long alone. For my part, I do not know the 
place where it is good to be long alone. Certainly not even 
here among friends. The general opinion seems to be that 
the greatest hardship is isolation. I don't wonder that the 
missionaries are often willing to take almost anybody they 
can get. 

Bob and I went with Mr. Pott to one of his preaching 
stations. Part of the way we walked, and part we rode on 
wheelbarrows. The men balance these skilfully so as to 
carry a load on one side only. It is quite a novel sensation, 
but not uncomfortable, except when the way is rough. It 
seems that there are no roads except in and about the for- 
eign concessions. But the fields are netted with paths 
from six inches to several feet wide, occasionally roughly 



paved. Along these we rode, crossing streams and deep 
ditches on narrow pieces of stone, some not more than six 
inches wide, where, if the bearer had not preserved the 
balance exactly, or had stumbled, we should have gone head 
first into the mud or water. But they are very skilful, and 
I have learned to have full confidence in them. When we 
reached the village, Loong Hwo, we had some time to 
spare, so the deacon took us to see a Buddhist temple. 
We were fortunate in hitting on service-time. As we ap- 
proached we saw an old priest (only the priest seems to 
take part in their services) telling his beads, meanwhile 
watching us. Inside were several immense figures of 
3uddha and hosts of other gods about the walls. Incense 
was burning, a bell tinkling, and a gong slowly beating, 
while the priests chanted their songs in a weird monotone. 
Then they marched, single file, about the room, forming 
a figure like the letter U in outline. Probably the form 
has some significance, but I am not sure. Near by was 
a pagoda seven or eight stories high, but we had no time 
to enter. There were several temple buildings, square with 
high roof, and shrine in the center, standing one before 
another, and all in a sort of court with a cloister about it. 
In the second four men were crouched on stools before an 
image of Buddha, droning out their prayers or praises, 
one beating incessantly a little bell, the other a drum. 
They did not seem particularly interested in what they 
were doing, and looked at us with languid interest. They 
were a very unattractive lot of men, and from their ap- 
pearance I should say, "blind leaders of the blind," and 
worse than that, bad. 1 

Steamer Ngankin, Hankow, December 17, 1891. 
Dear All: 

I told you in my last letter that I was about to pay a 
visit to Mr. Locke in Hankow, and, true to my word, I left 

1 Good, bad, and very bad.— Editor. 


Shanghai for Hankow on Friday night, December 11, on 
the steamer Ngankin. This is a vessel of about one thou- 
sand tons, plying between Hankow and Shanghai. It is 
quite a good boat, the table good, and the state-rooms com- 
fortable. I got the last state-room that was to be had, and 
found my companion to be a young Scotch Bible agent, a 
rather nice fellow. In fact, out of nine passengers, eight 
were missionaries, including the Eoman Catholic bishop 
of Honan and three young priests he was bringing from 
Italy. I passed a wretchedly uncomfortable night in an 
upper berth, and woke the next morning with a bad head- 
ache, which assisted an alternating series of chills and 
fever in its (quite successful) effort to make me wretched; 
but I got some medicine from the captain Saturday night, 
and was much better the next day. About noon of Sunday 
we reached Wuhu, where we could see on the hills the re- 
mains of the Eoman Catholic buildings which were 
wrecked by the mob. We did not stop long, so no one went 
ashore. About seven o'clock Sunday evening we came 
across a Japanese coal-steamer stuck on a bank in the 
river. A boat came to ask us to tow her off. Captain 
agreed to do so for five hundred taels (about five hundred 
dollars in gold). This was accepted, and we lay by for a 
couple of hours, taking soundings steadily and trying to 
come close enough to her to take a cable from her ; but the 
water was very shallow, and we gave up, leaving her to her 

The view in parts of the river was beautiful. In some 
places it is so wide that you can only dimly see the other 
bank, but at Hankow it is only about a mile wide. It 
bends very much, and the current is enough to make the 
up-trip three days and four nights, while the return trip 
is about eighteen hours less. The banks along the lower 
part of the river are flat, and the land beyond almost an 
unbroken level. But as we ascend the river, the country 
becomes hilly, until at Kiu Kiang the mountains are real 
and very pretty. Some very precipitous hills project into 



the river, and remind me very much of portions of the 
Inland Sea. On Monday morning we passed a great mass 
of rock standing in the river, about three hundred and fifty 
feet high and perhaps as much in diameter. It rises 
abruptly from the water and is called "The Orphan." On 
its top is a temple, and on the side is a cluster of buildings 
which seem to be growing there. I was told its story. It 
once stood in a lake above its present location, beside an- 
other rock, grander and more imposing than itself. But 
it grew jealous of its rival, — so to end such feelings, the 
river god floated it down the river. At this spot it struck 
a dragon and stopped, holding him fast to the bottom, 
where he struggled to free himself. This story is .proved 
beyond question by the current about the foot of the cliff, 
which shows that the dragon is still struggling. When we 
passed it this evening, the cliff was swarming with birds, 
chiefly water-fowl — ducks, geese, etc. — with which the 
country abounds. 

We reached Hankow early Tuesday (December 15), and 
I received a note, while at breakfast, from Mr. Locke, ask- 
ing me to come with his coolie to the house. I started, 
and met him on the way. He took me home, and after 
breakfast we visited several of his day-schools near the 
concession. He has nine in all, embracing about three 
hundred scholars, and all of them attend morning prayers 
in one place or another. I went through his hospital build- 
ing, generally empty now, as there is no physician con- 
nected with this mission. After that we went into his 
new church. It is a beautiful building, Gothic in style, 
with high roof and large transept. The chancel is un- 
usually large. The church is built of native brick, of a 
bluish color, ornamented with red sandstone. It has no 
spire. On each side of the church an aisle is cut off from 
the nave by arches of sandstone on pillars of the same, 
while the arches of the chancel and the entrance to the 
transept are made of the same. The floor is paved with 
stone. The bell has arrived, the benches are ready, and 



the building was promised for use on Christmas day, but 
I doubt if it will be ready by that time. It will hold eight 
hundred persons. Mr. Locke intends to use it as a sort of 
cathedral church for out-stations, having periodical gath- 
erings here for all the converts, and having baptisms and 
confirmations in it. It is on the edge of the concession, 
and as near the Chinese quarter as it can be without being 
in it. 

I spent a good deal of my time talking with Mr. Locke, 
and found him very entertaining. It seems to me that he 
is something of a High Churchman, without being at all a 
ritualist. His views differ from mine on several points, 
but I do not think that will make any trouble. He is 
much in earnest, and very hopeful about the new plan he 
is trying. So far it has had great results. He trains those 
of his converts who seem to be fit, for six months or a year 
(the latter, I think), and then sends them out among the 
people. They go to a village, rent a house, and make 
known that they are ready to talk to any one who comes. 
Inquirers are sure to come, who drink a cup of tea and 
stay to talk over the new Doctrine. The news soon spreads, 
and sometimes the evangelist is kept busy night and day. 
When he has taught them some Christianity, and they know 
the Creed, the Lord's Prayer, and the Catechism, they are 
brought to Mr. Locke. Up to that time he has not seen 
them. He examines them, rejects those he thinks unwor- 
thy or unprepared, and baptizes the others. One day he 
baptized over eighty, and he has about two hundred on 
hand now. In one week he had two applications from vil- 
lages for teachers, one of which offered to provide a room 
and furnish it, and the other had collected thirty dollars 
for the purpose — a large sum. In response to the first, a 
Christian man, employed in Hankow, offered to go if his 
boat fare was paid. So he was sent. He receives no pay. 
Mr. Locke sent an evangelist to one village, who finally 
brought back word of two hundred men who wished to be 
baptized. He then sent two deacons, who renorted the same. 



Finally he sent another, with strict orders not to exagger- 
ate. Mr. Locke read his letter to me. He says there are 
really two hundred candidates there, and he and his com- 
panion have been working day and night to teach them, 
and that in a neighboring village there are already twenty 
baptized, and twenty-three who wish to be. This, he says, 
is a true tale. Mr. Locke plans to keep in the background 
and work entirely through the Chinese. As a result he 
has already a large congregation, and among them are 
twenty men who have degrees. He expects soon to have a 
class of evangelists, all of whom are degree men — scholars. 
This will be quite a triumph. He has had overtures from 
two mandarins, and has, I think, baptized one. His plan 
is to work up congregations among the villagers by means 
of evangelists, and then place over them Chinese ministers 
to instruct them. 

A good deal of opposition has been made to this work 
because its results are so soon visible. People say it can- 
not be real, but will soon pass away; that Mr. Locke's 
evangelists deceive him; etc. In fact, one evangelist did 
turn out to be a rogue and was "bounced." But while he 
admits his converts are weak and sometimes fall, as all 
others do, he believes they are in earnest and cites their 
offers to furnish a house for a teacher as evidence. I had 
no opportunity to see his congregation and judge from 
personal experience of them, but this is my explanation of 
it. The truth is simply presented to the Chinese by one 
of themselves; the foreigner is kept quite in the back- 
ground. It is explained in the course of private and quiet 
conversation, by one who understands their difficulties. 
Why should they not believe it, just as the Jews and 
heathen believed the apostles? Of course they are weak, 
of course they are superstitious and ignorant, and it will 
probably take a century or more of Christian teaching to 
evolve out of them a high Christian character. But Mr. 
Locke assures me that he believes they accept Christ as 
their Saviour, and I don't know that any more is needed 


for a beginning, — but, as he says, time will try his work. 
Meanwhile it is full of encouragement. But he is the only 
man in China (to his knowledge) who follows that plan. 
Others are not willing to trust the Chinese so readily, and 
they have to oppose the hatred of foreigners, which is deep 
in Chinese hearts, and so move very slowly, indeed. For 
my part, I believe in Mr. Locke's work, and am glad of an 
opportunity to join it. 

Wednesday afternoon, Dr. Merrins, our missionary phy- 
sician at Wuchang, across the river from Hankow, lunched 
with us, and I returned with him to Wuchang to see Mr. 
and Mrs. Graves, from whom I received a very kind invi- 
tation to visit them. We crossed in the mist and rain, on 
a Chinese row-boat with a little roof of matting arched 
over the middle for a protection, just high enough to knock 
your hat off. The river at Hankow is about a mile wide, 
and in winter is forty or fifty feet below summer flood- 
level, so that when we reached land there were one hun- 
dred yards or more of mud before us. Dr. Merrins's boy, 
who had come with him, called for sedan-chairs, which 
appeared from the town. The bearers carried us up the 
bank on their backs, in regular old-fashioned style, to the 
chairs, and off we started. They dropped us at the city 
gate, for they were licensed to go no further ; and leaving 
them to be paid by the boy, who was coming along behind, 
we started off and walked to the mission church compound. 
There is no foreign concession in Wuchang, and the 
grounds are merely a lot in the city, surrounded by a high 
wall. The inclosure is quite large, and includes a large 
double dwelling-house, a boys' school and a divinity school, 
a chapel, and a building for the girls' school. The girls 
were sent home when the riots drove the missionaries away, 
and the school will not reopen till Chinese New Year, the 
latter part of January. This school is the Jane Bohlen 
Girls' School, and the college is the Bishop Boone Me- 
morial School for boys. 1 Mr. and Mrs. Graves were very 
i Now Boone University.— Editor. 



pleasant, and I enjoyed very much, seeing them and the 
children. Thursday morning, after going over the build- 
ing in the compound, Mr. Graves, Dr. Merrins, and I 
started to walk to a Taoist temple, about three miles from 
the city. We passed through part of the city and environs 
to reach it. It was my first experience of a native city, 
in its native grandeur of smells, dogs, and people. The 
dogs are much prejudiced against foreigners, and were 
very rude to us. As long as they are in front of you and 
plainly visible, they carelessly look at a stone or a speck 
of dust at their feet. But as soon as you pass you are 
greeted with growls and barks and fierce rushes which 
need all your attention. Most of the missionaries in 
Wuchang, I was told, had been bitten. One old dog, blind 
in one eye, rushed out of a house at Mr. Graves, who was 
leading. Mr. Graves struck at him and missed him, but 
Dr. Merrins, who was on the blind side, gave him a good 
rap on the back with a heavy cane, and with a shocked and 
grieved bark he bolted into the house. As we returned he 
gave us angry looks with his sound eye, but contented him- 
self with looking and growling. The people only encour- 
age them to attack us, but they do not seem to resent our 
whacking the dogs with sticks and stones. I have provided 
mvself with a heavv stick with a knob on the end. 1 

The temple was a queer place. There were some images 
of gods and heroes, a few of them nearly twelve feet high. 
One was the god who hauls the body from the coffin. His 
feet were heaped up with shoes — bribes to be gentle to the 
givers, I suppose. But the chief interest centered in the 
groups of figures representing the tortures of hell. Along 
the sides of the building were inclosures about fifteen feet 
long and five feet wide, with slats to keep out intruders. 
Within was a large figure of a god on a platform; below 

i There is a great deal of hydrophobia in China, so that the dogs 
are a real menace. Foreigners make a practice of carrying canes 
in native cities, — so much so that the Chinese name for the for- 
eigner's cane is tl hit-dog-stick. ' ' — Editor. 



were the good receiving favorable sentences, and the lowest 
step was taken up with the torments of the lost. The fig- 
ures were about eighteen inches high, of plaster and clay 
colored. The executioners were black fiends with red 
stripes, supposed to resemble foreigners. As assistants or 
judges they had men with heads of cattle. The poor 
wretches were having a hard time in their hands. Some 
were freezing in ice-water, some were scalding in hot 
water, some had their tongues torn out, some had lost 
eyes and nose, some were sawn in two, some impaled, 
some fastened to a brass cylinder and roasted. In fact, the 
ideas are unlimited and ingenious. At the end of the 
line we saw them reappearing, after transmigration into 
women, birds, and beasts, the lower orders of creation. A 
crowd followed us through the building, discussing us 
freely and telling us about the figures. They seem to have 
no reverence for those things. One fellow went within the 
railing and handed out parts of figures for inspection, say- 
ing he did not believe in such things. The crowd seemed 
to enjoy the joke when Mr. Graves told one of them that 
a certain idol looked as if he had a stomach-ache. 

We wended our way back through the mud and the 
children and the dogs and the smells (all pretty well mixed 
up), past a camp of Hunan soldiers (who would probably 
have given their dinner for the privilege of cutting our 
heads off), back to the compound. On our way we passed 
a great many men carrying burdens on poles balanced on 
their shoulders. They go along at a jog-trot, shaking 
their bodies or grunting and singing something in time 
with the motion. One was shouting, "I ? m carrying, I ? m 
carrying." When he met us, without the least pause or 
change of tone he continued, "I 'm carrying, foreign devil, 
foreign devil, I 'm carrying," etc. One of the gentlemen 
passed some men hammering piles by the river. They at 
once changed their song, "Here comes a foreign devil, here 
goes his head (giving a heavy blow), here 's for his body 
(another sounding whack), here *s for his feet, here goes 



all of him" — with a finishing stroke. Their greeting is 
not always cordial, as you see, but very warm. 

I left Hankow on Thursday evening by the same 
steamer, the Nganhin, and was the only passenger down. 
I managed to do some reading and played games with the 
captain. We reached Shanghai Sunday morning, and I 
came to St. John's and found my mail waiting for me 
(four letters and the papers). You may imagine I was 
glad to get it. 

I cannot tell you how much I was cheered by the news 
of what the dear people in Frederick are doing. In look- 
ing over the Baltimore "Sun," I am struck with the fact 
that I am probably in the safest part of the world, with 
almost every state in the world either at war or anxious 
to be so, with murders and fires and riots and anarchists 
and highway robbers (even in Montgomery County, Mary- 
land). I am very nervous for you all. Direct letters to 
me in Hankow, China. I expect to go there to live about 
the first of January. 1 Will miss the Massies badly. Han- 
kow is, next to Shanghai, probably the most secure place 
in China, In any event, I have a club. 


Hankow, January 9, 1892. 
Dearest All: 

Here I am in Hankow. I left Shanghai last Saturday, 
and arrived about noon on Wednesday. I was the only 
passenger except H. B. M. consul at Hankow, Mr. Gar- 
diner, who was very pleasant. We played backgammon, 
logomachy, etc., and read. I read the life of Bishop Pat- 
teson of Melanesia, by Charlotte M. Yonge. It has helped 

i Bishop Boone had died (October 5, 1891), and there had been 
no election. There was no bishop officiating at this time, there- 
fore, and the movements of the staff were evidently largely ac- 
cording to individual preference.— Editor. 



me, and I enjoyed it greatly. He has many of the same 
problems to deal with that we have here, and many of his 
statements about the people agree exactly with Mr. Locke's 
account of his own experiences. 

On Christmas eve I was Santa Claus at both the girls' 
and boys' schools. I wrote some account of it for the 
"Christian Soldier/' After the trees we had service in 
the chapel, which was prettily decorated. The singing by 
the children was very good and very hearty, and after ser- 
vice we had fireworks on the lawn. We spent Christmas 
very pleasantly at home. 

I have taken an up-stairs room in the hospital building, 
and divide it by a partition so as to make a bedroom and 
study. Next to my study is my dining-room, for I am 
going to keep house — at any rate, try it. One's cook buys 
everything, pays for it himself, and you settle with him 
weekly, monthly, or daily, if you insist upon it. When 
you need to hire coolies for carrying furniture, etc., he 
attends to it all. A foreigner can do scarcely anything. 
He is bewildered in the intricacies of a fearful language, 
and powerless in the infantile innocency of Western 
shrewdness as against the fathomless devices of Eastern 
duplicity (duplicity is too weak, better multiplicity), 
which is heavy with its forty centuries of growth. In this 
unfixed state I can neither write nor read nor study. I 
expect in three or four days to move to my new quarters 
and begin my new life. I shall be a couple of squares from 
Mr. Locke, and immediately beside the new church, which 
will soon be finished. As soon as it is finished I expect to 
celebrate the communion every Sunday morning and 
preach every Sunday evening. I shall also begin a class in 
English five afternoons in the week. So I shall not be 


"g>a Iiuetotee j>e, except j>e utter i>? tjje tonfftte toorta 
easp to fce tmtterfiitooii, Ijoto afcalt it lie fenoton toljat is 
gpotletl?forpe0l)aUfiipeattint0t^eair/ , — 1 Cor. xiv, 9. 

"lean, fcfoM? JLiff^t^* 

"LorH, take mp lips, an* speak tirottff!) t&etn; take mp 
min*, attfi tljtnu t&rottg;!) it; take mp fceart, an* set it 
on fire* &men." 


The Chinese tongue was in existence when St. James 
wrote, "The tongue can no man tame — it is an unruly 
evil, full of deadly poison." On the basis of up-to-date 
criticism, we therefore take it as proved that St. James 
was the first Christian missionary to China, and that he 
had a go at the language. 

Ingle studied Chinese before the days when, "on arrival 

in the field, each missionary is placed where he will have 

the benefit of the advice and guidance of an experienced 

worker. He is supplied with a Chinese teacher, with whom 

he is expected to spend as much time each day as he can 

with profit. As far as possible, he is spared all responsible 

work during the first year, in order to devote all his energy 

and time to the study of the language. During the second 

year the bishop may assign light duties in addition, but 

with the understanding that the entire forenoon, at least, 

shall be reserved for study. There is a definite course of 

study laid down, with examinations which fall due each 

six months of the first two years; after which the student 

is free from this oversight, and is expected to pursue his 

studies as time and opportunity permit; etc." 


On the contrary, Ingle's first year was half filled with 
other duties, and he apparently had no examinations and 
very little guidance — but he made good, all the same. 

"December 3, 1891. 
"I am busy with the language, and think I am making 
good progress. It is a tremendous job and will take no 
end of work, but I am much interested. The difficulty is 
that the difference of dialects makes dictionaries unre- 
liable, and the text-books for the Shanghai dialect (which 
we are studying) are very imperfect. These Chinese teach- 
ers have no idea of systematic and well-chosen instruc- 
tion, so I am teacher as well as scholar, and assign my 
teacher the parts I wish to recite on. I hope to study bet- 
ter, and have more chance for writing, when I am in my 
own house." 

But his study was interrupted by the move to Hankow, 
where Mandarin had to be substituted for the local Shang- 
hai dialect. 

"Hankow, January 16, 1892. 
"I have begun to study Mandarin. My teacher is a 
Mandarin who has resigned his position to teach me. As 
he is a degree man, Mr. Locke gives him eight dollars a 
month, and this is more than his position paid him." 

"Hankow, January 23, 1892. 
"I repeat over and over again, after my teacher, the 
sounds of the character, and try to imitate him exactly. 
But the sounds are so subtle that they often escape me. 
There is a &-sound and a sound between g and h, and the 
only — or rather the great — difference is that in the former 
you allow a little breath to escape. There is the same dif- 
ference in the case of t, and the sound without a breathing, 
between d and t. To breathe in that place is fatal, and 


may beget an absurdity or a shocking irreverence. After 
my usual exercises, and some conversation with him, I 
walked about the room, opening drawers and showing what 
was in them, giving a Chinese name, if I knew it, and 
otherwise asking it. Then I brought out books and my 
photographs of paintings, and as far as my small stock of 
words allowed, told him what they represented, and asked 
the names of things with which I was not familiar. As 
probably a third of them were Madonnas, I had not much 
trouble, and I got hold of a good many words. My teacher 
grows quite drowsy during the two hours I have him, and 
I must talk to him to keep him awake." 

Then comes another interruption. 


"January 31, 1892. 
'And now, after my teacher has been coming less than 
a week, he must needs have a holiday for a week to go 
home to celebrate Chinese New Year. So for a week I 
must struggle on alone. Still, I have made some progress, 
but I don't feel the same intense yearning for a dictionary 
that I felt at first. Perhaps this language was n't invented 
by his Satanic Majesty. I would n't dare to say it was. 
But I '11 wager he smiled a satisfied smile when he heard it 
pronounced, for he could not have made it more to his 
purpose if he had edited the National Dictionary. Think 
of being able to say the sound of po in four different tones, 
possibly five, each one giving it a different meaning ! But 
you must be careful to make the sound between a b and a 
p. If you let a little too much breath escape and give it 
the aspirated sound of our p, you will have a different word 
with a different meaning in each tone. That makes ten 
possible sounds. If you pronounce it too far down, you 
may make an eleventh. Now bear in mind, my youthful 
readers, that each of those eleven sounds may be repre- 
sentedbyasmany different written characters as his Majesty 
pleases. Take as another example an easy Chinese sound, 


tsz. There are in my abridged dictionary sixty-five char- 
acters with precisely that pronunciation, but divided, of 
course, between the five tones. But if you let a little breath 
escape between the s and z, you have another sound, and 
the dictionary gives thirty-three characters for this, dif- 
fering, of course, in meaning. 

"I do not believe that it is possible for a foreigner to 
get the tones perfectly, but they can be understood. The 
five tones here are the upper even tone, the lower tone, the 
entering tone, the departing tone, and the ascending tone. 
The first is an unvarying note, rather high, long drawn 
out, e.g. (that means, 'No extra charge for examples'), 
'Song-g-g-g,' pronounced in gizzard sharp. The second 
is similar but lower. The third, as well as I have been 
able to identify it, is neither an angle-worm standing on 
his head, nor a cork-screw, though its name might suggest 
the latter. Etc. Imagine your voice performing such an- 
tics, if you can ! And then the sounds ! for a gentle 
South Carolina or Virginia tongue to whisper sweet words 
in soft accents (I am prejudiced against the word 't ones') 
into my suffering ear ! But this fierce speech !" 

"February 6, 1892. 
"I still hammer away at the language, and have brilliant 
and exciting conversations with my teacher about things 
in the room : 'What is that ?' 'It is a knife.' 'My sisters 
gave me that pillow/ 'My father gave me this watch.' 
This is really exhilarating, though you may not think so. 
This language is grandly indifferent to anything like a 
decent or consistent order of words. 'Bring me that large 
book' is nothing of the sort in Chinese. The noble China- 
man says, 'Take hold that piece large book carry come.' 
The word translated 'piece' is what is called a numerary 
adjunct. Different nouns have different N. A.'s, which 
thus give a hint of what is to come. Thus, for book we 
have one N. A.; for table, another; for man, another. If 
you get the N. A. right, it helps to interpret what fol- 


lows. If you miss it, you may hopelessly entangle every- 
thing. We may make somewhat similar mistakes in Eng- 
lish by saying, 'a drove of books/ 'a team of cows/ 'a 
flock of horses/ 'a covey of girls' (unless, indeed, we re- 
ferred to the latter as 'ducks'). But it is worse in Chi- 
nese, for there is more of it. Almost every noun must have 
its proper N". A. The word 'carry' is also fraught with 
peril. You don't want to say, 'haul/ lug/ 'drag/ 'carry 
on your shoulder/ 'carry on a pole between two men/ when 
you speak of a book — at least an ordinary book. But, 
unless you are careful to use the word which means 'to 
carry a light article, as a book/ you are in danger of mak- 
ing a ridiculous blunder. 

"I will copy from my text-book part of a model dialogue 
between a foreigner and a Chinaman. It will give some 
idea of Oriental etiquette. The foreigner: 'Please take a 
seat/ 'What is your honorable name?' 'How dare I?' 
'I have not yet asked yours/ 'How can I presume ?' 'My 
unworthy name is Pao/ 'Indeed! My name is Chang/ 
'Where is your house?' 'The prefecture of An-E/ing/ 
'Ah! the chief prefecture/ 'How dare I?' 'Kindly tell 
me what country you belong to?' 'My unworthy country 
is England/ 'What is your honorable age ?' 'I have grown 
up in vain thirty-three years/ 'How many sons have you ?' 
'Four/ (If he had been a Chinaman, he might have said, 
'Four little scoundrels/) 'Since you are a man of virtue, 
I congratulate you/ etc., etc. At parting the Chinaman 
says : 'Do not come out, pray/ 'I have been but poor com- 
pany/ 'You are too polite altogether/ 'I have been rude- 
ness itself/ So he leaves. You will see that the veneer- 
ing of Western courtesy is but a shadowy film compared 
with the 'chunks' of dissimulation with which the Oriental 
plasters his conversation." 

A characteristic of "Chinese" language study is an alter- 
nation of elation and despondency concerning progress. 
On May 1 he was feeling cheerful about it. 



"May 1, 1892. 

"I am getting on pretty well with the language, can 
talk a little and understand a little less, and feel sure that 
a couple of years will make it quite natural to me. One 
difficulty I have is that my boy waxes indignant when I 
try to talk Chinese to him, and he retaliates in the fastest 
and most difficult Chinese he can muster. But I fire an 
occasional sentence at him, and am content to try the 
Chinese plan of working up slowly. If I find that he offers 
continued resistance to these efforts, I shall reply to him 
in such stately Shakespearian English that he will be 
glad to resort to my shaky Chinese as better. I think I 
can beat him at his own game, for I am learning his lan- 
guage faster than he is learning mine, so I bide my time. 
Meanwhile he is doing very well, and I have no trouble 
with him. 

"I have now only two night sessions, but have taken in 
hand the choir-boys' English to relieve Mr. Locke and 
enable him to give more time to their music. I still give 
two hours on each of four afternoons to the two deacons, 
from whom I get a good deal of Chinese, and to whom I 
give what English they can take. The English spelling- 
book I use has long lists of words, and, with the help of a 
couple of dictionaries, I get from these deacons their Chi- 
nese meaning in the colloquial, which I write down. When 
I make this list sufficiently complete and accurate, I shall 
keep it as likely to be of use to some future missionary. I 
cannot depend on my teacher for such things, for he not 
only knows no English, but when he grasps my idea, gives 
me some highfalutin classical word which is Hebrew to 
the common people. To the inherent difficulty of the lan- 
guages and this trouble with an educated teacher must be 
added the fact that no dictionary or book that I have can 
be trusted without a Chinese to interpret its sounds, both 
because the sounds are different in any two places, and 
because the English writing of any sound differs in any 
two books. [There is at the present time a standard sys- 



tern of Bomanization, and a number of excellent text-books 
are available. — Editor.] So I often find that I have to 
unlearn what I have learned/' 

"May 8, 1892. 
"My studies go on as before, ten hours a week with my 
teacher, eight with the deacons, three with the night- 
school, and three with the choir-boys, so that I average 
four hours each week-day with my Chinese. I am picking 
up. My boy takes kindly to my Chinese, and seems, much 
to my surprise, inclined to talk only in Chinese, so that, 
except in difficult matters, we converse in that. 


"May 22, 1892. 
"I am learning to write as well as read and speak, and 
hope before long to give you some specimens of my writing 
(really painting) and a little discourse on its methods and 
difficulty. For it is a most exact science. My night-school 
is progressing finely, and it is again growing popular. The 
choir-boys are doing well with their English singing, and 
are full of zeal and energy in their studies. They are very 
attractive little fellows." 

"June 6, 1892. 
"I am still advancing with my Chinese, and have occa- 
sional visits from a deacon or teacher, with whom I find 
I can converse tolerably well. It is not so hard to be un- 
derstood as to understand, for the constant recurrence of 
the same sound with different meanings makes it necessary 
to become acquainted with each sound in each of its usual 
combinations. Still, this can be done, and I really enjoy 
my studying and feel very much encouraged by its results." 

He had been studying the language for practically six 
months at this time. 


''June 18, 1892. 
"I am still encouraged with the language. I sometimes 
begrudge the time I give to my preparation of my Eng- 
lish sermons; but, apart from the advantage to myself 
and the possibility of doing good, Mr. Locke reminds me 
that Chinese is not to be crammed by just so many hours' 
work a day; that he tried the plan and it failed, and he 
thinks I am following the best plan." 

"August 10, 1892, 
"Probably I have said enough about the difficulties of 
this language, but I cannot help talking of it, for the 
thought of it is always with me. Just now I am rather 
blue about it. I seem to have improved in reading, but 
have gone back in speaking. One day I think I know 
something and am making some progress; the next, I am 
firmly persuaded that I am a blockhead and know nothing. 
I ask one of my acquaintances (Chinese) for a phrase 
which he assures me is good, and constantly used. I use 
it to another, who savs it is seldom if ever used. To tell 
the truth, I have n't as many opportunities for talking as 
I wish." 

"March 12, 1893. 
"Meanwhile I go on steadily with my studies, and can 
feel an almost daily improvement, though, of course, not 
as rapid as I should like. I enjoy it. too, though I also 
enjoy a holiday." 


April 10, 1S93. 
f Now I know you will be glad to hear that I am still 
more encouraged about the language. I have fits of ela- 
tion and depression. For a few days I will seem to have 
forgotten almost everything. I can scarcely say or under- 
stand anything. Then comes a time, almost suddenly, 
when it is all changed, and phrases that I scarcely know 
come to my lips and fit themselves into my conversation. 


It is the natural result of steady, day-by-day plodding. 
These phrases are hid in my memory and come out under 
the pressure of favorable circumstances. And every few- 
days some of the Chinese tell me that I speak with unusual 
distinctness and accuracy. They go further than this. 
One of the deacons told me that in a few years I would 
speak better than any of the missionaries. That was a 
mixture of flattery and good wishes, but it is nevertheless 
the goal I have set for myself. It is still a long, long way 
off, and there are many years of hard work between, but I 
shall not be satisfied till I reach it." 

Probably no missionary to China forgets his first public 
address in Chinese — if he ever gets so far. On April 30, 
1893, after fifteen interrupted months at the language, 
Ingle writes: 

"P.S. — I forgot to say that I made what was practically 
my first talk in public on Wednesday night in our instruc- 
tion class. It was very well received and was said to be 

"May 7, 1893. 
"I am gaining quite rapidly in the language, and some- 
times find myself speaking on ordinary topics with little 
effort. I have spoken a few times in our instruction 
class, and get along all right. But my vocabulary is very 
limited, and I have to be careful to avoid starting on a line 
of thought which I cannot carry out. I hope to be preach- 
ing in the church before many months. To-day, for the 
first time, I read all the communion service, including 
epistle and gospel. I could have done it before, if I had 
taken the time to work it out. But as the deacon could 
take the first part for me, I thought I would wait and 
spend the time on something that was more pressing. But 
I had no trouble with it. I also baptized eleven persons. 





'September 17, 1893. 
'I have been studying hard all summer on this barbar- 
ous language, and expect to continue to study as long as I 
am in China. You see, a man never reaches the end. He 
may be able to speak fluently and. not know a single char- 
acter when he sees it. The characters (as you know, there 
is no alphabet) are merely so many pictures, and one 
learns to recognize them only by seeing them constantly. 
So if a man ceases to study, he may talk better and better 
every day, but he is forgetting characters every day. Even 
the native scholars would soon forget a great many if they 
did not constantly read them. So if a man intends to go 
forward instead of backward, he must take his doses of 
Chinese as regularly as he takes his meals, otherwise he 
will soon forget more than he ever knew." 

The word "sinologue" has been overworked and is suf- 
fering from nervous exhaustion. Ingle became proficient 
in the use of the Chinese language. He spoke it fluently 
and gracefully and was at home in its primeval depths, 
and out of its depths he blessed God. He also compiled 
and translated a number of useful books. But the venera- 
ble Archdeacon Thomson remains the only man in the 
Church's mission who counts and dreams in Chinese (we 
have all had nightmares about it!), and whose voice and 
language can be depended on to deceive a native com- 
pletely. We are accustomed to call our Chinese teacher, 
"our writer," after we have passed the mission examina- 
tions and begin to feel our sinologic oats. I remember 
witnessing with delight my writer's (?) complete taking 
in, during a long conversation, by the archdeacon, whom 
he supposed all the time to be an invisible Tsoong-k'oh 
nyung. And the archdeacon has been in China only a lit- 
tle over fifty years ! 



Mi*. Ingle in the Early China Days. 

3T sen* pou fortb as sfceep in tjje mtUst of tooloes: be 
pe therefore totse as serpents." 

<0rant tts tljat t&e Spirit of ££isttom map saoe ns from 
all false choices, anto t&at in CI)p Itajt toe map see 
liajt, anfc in Cl)p strait patl) map not stumble." 


"The Han Eiver enters the Yang-tse over six hundred 
miles from its mouth. At the junction of the two rivers are 
the cities of Hankow, Wuchang, and Hanyang, with a popu- 
lation of over a million, of whom a large majority live in 
Hankow. The American Church Mission was established 
here in 1868 ; but while work in Wuchang had been fairly 
well manned and Boone School brought to a state of con- 
siderable efficiency, the work in Hankow had never been 
pushed, for lack of workers, until 1886, when the Eev. 
Arthur H. Locke was put in charge. He at once began 
to branch out on new lines. The old street chapels were 
practically abandoned and a more efficient method of work, 
with individual inquirers in the guest-rooms, was intro- 
duced. Classes of evangelists were instructed and sent to 
labor in the city and some of the surrounding towns. 
Large numbers of converts were baptized. A new church, 
seating nearly a thousand, was built. The faults of the 
work were such as might be expected. The converts were 
insufficiently instructed and the moral and spiritual stand- 
ard insensibly lowered. The catechists were not always 
examples to the catechumens. The work was, in fact, 
much too large for one man to manage. 

Ingle came to this work at the height of its progress; 



over three hundred persons were baptized in 1891. He 
could, of course, do little until he had some command of 
the language ; so the first thing to do was to study, and to 
this he set himself with the steady persistency which char- 
acterized everything he did. During the first six months 
he also taught English in a night-school several evenings 
each week, and held occasional English services. This 
latter work he continued till his death. 

At the end of his first June he had an attack of fever, 
in consequence of which he was sent to spend the summer 
in Japan, returning at the end of August. Two months 
later Mr. Locke decided to return to America. At first it 
was intended to put an older missionary from another sta- 
tion in charge, but the Chinese clergy objected, and in 
consequence of their representations Mr. Ingle was made 
head of the station. His life work may be said to begin 
from this point — November 1, 1892. At that time he 
found it impossible to continue the catechists' class for 
lack of knowledge of the language, but the other work was 
continued as before. Most of his time, however, was still 
devoted to the study of the language. He continued living 
and working alone until 1894, when he made a rapid trip 
to America and was married to Miss Charlotte Ehett, of 
Charleston, South Carolina, to whom he had been engaged 
before he left America. At this time the work was car- 
ried on in three chapels in Hankow, and in two towns, one 
sixty and one a hundred and twenty miles distant. There 
were also eight or nine day-schools and one small boarding- 
school. Ingle continued in charge of this until 1896." 

The first couple of years of a missionary's foreign ser- 
vice rarely bring in any adequate return to the church 
which he serves and to which he is a by no means inconsid- 
erable expense. It is a term of unskilled apprenticeship. 
He is subject to constant errors of judgment, owing to his 
faulty understanding of the natives and their customs and 
manners of thought. He is filled with preconceived no- 
tions which must be largely modified or discarded. He has 


the language to learn and the methods of missions to 
grapple with. These are the so-called "griffin" years. A 
griffin is an unbroken Chinese pony ; and a foreigner, be he 
layman or clergyman, missionary, business man or what j 
not, during his first three years in the East is always called 
a griffin. It may be said of Ingle, to his great credit, that 
his "griffinate" really lasted only one year. At the end of 
the first year he spoke the language fairly well, was 
ready for active missionary charge, and because of his 
abounding sympathy and common sense was no longer a 

The missionary griffin may, however, usually be credited 
with a few things. He is in an impressionable state and 
is able for a year or so to write home interestingly of all 
that he sees and does. After this period the strange be- 
comes commonplace to him, and his letters drift into fam- 
ily details and missionary news, the material of his daily 
thoughts having passed beyond and over the peculiarities 
of Chinese hair-glue or the ways of the wily "wonk" (Chi- 
nese yellow dog). 

The letters of Ingle's first year in China give a very in- 
timate picture of first impressions of things Chinese, and 
this will explain the disproportionately large number of 
letters quoted from this year, as compared with other far 
more important years of his active missionary service. 
The letters of this first period are largely his picture of 
China, while those to follow will deal exclusively with his 
life's work. 

Ingleside, Hankow, January 16, 1892. 
Dearest All : 

As you see, I am writing in my new quarters, though I 
have not yet moved in permanently, for the plaster of the 
partition is not yet dry and I am afraid to sleep here. 
See how prudent I am ! We had quite an excitement here 
early Tuesday morning. About four o'clock the fire-gong 
was beaten, and when Mr. Locke awoke me at 4.20 the fire 



was in full blast. We dressed and went to see it. It was 
just outside the concession, and separated from it by only 
a narrow street. It started down in Chinatown and swept 
away probably two hundred dwellings, also two missionary 
printing establishments, and then consumed several lum- 
ber-yards. There were crowds of Chinese standing by, but 
they could not be prevailed on to do anything, for the 
property was not theirs. "We found out the next day that 
eight of our Christian families had been burned out. They 
came to Mr. Locke, imploring aid, but he could do nothing 
for them. Fortunately I had twenty dollars which had 
been given me by different persons to spend on the Chinese 
as I thought best. Twenty dollars in gold meant twenty- 
seven dollars in Mexican silver, so it was enough to start 
them all again. 

P.S. — Sing a jubilate with me ! My boxes are in Shang- 
hai. Mr. Locke says they have been there three weeks. I 
had ceased to expect them, thought they were either at the 
bottom of the ocean or had been missent and were on their 
way to Greenland. Either one would have been quite 
proper. You see, the buoyancy of youthful hope is leaving 
me. Now that my beard is growing, I am just lovely, but 
expect to be still more beautiful by and by. 

Hankow, January 23, 1892. 

I have had a good deal of disagreeable business lately, 
but I am becoming used to it and it does not worry me as it 
used to do. When a Chinaman, after long indulgence and 
kind treatment, has been dismissed from employment for 
misbehavior or general incompetence, he generally amuses 
himself blackening his former employer's reputation and 
offering indisputable proof that those still in employment 
are scoundrels. I have had something of this lately and 
have had my deacons investigating the charges, with the 
result that we have had some changes in our staff of 

You have no idea how fearfully prevalent the use of 


opium is here. High and low, the people are infected with 
the disease. It seems to have a stronger hold than liquor, 
and I fear that only a small proportion of those who break 
the habit by the use of medicine fail to go back to it. And 
when a man is once in the toils he is good for little. His 
moral nature seems to be crushed and he will lie and steal 
without hesitation. My teacher says that thirty years ago, 
when only foreign opium was to be had, comparatively few 
used it. At that time a governor here undertook to put to 
death all opium-smokers. But the plan did not work. 
Now the people have been driven to cultivate their own 
opium, and the number of victims of all classes is enor- 
mous. Its use, too, is not easy to detect except in rather 
advanced cases, so that it is impossible to guard against it 

Ingleside, January 23, 1892. 
Dear All : 

It is rather late Saturday night, but I shall begin my 
Monday letter before I go to bed. I am in my quarters, 
have taken my first solitary meal, and expect to sleep here 
to-night. My supper to-night was a grand success. Chiefly 
I had fish chowder. If you have never tasted it, you have 
something to live for. It is made of fish (as you may 
have guessed), bread, potatoes, and milk (I suppose). It 
is good, very good. 

I have felt all the delight and the trepidation of a young 
wife just undertaking housekeeping, except that I have no 
one around to scold me. I have monkeyed around my 
spoons and china, and trifled with my little copper kettle 
(a beauty, too !), as a child with new toys. I hardly cared 
to take a walk, wanted to hang around to look at things, 
and finally dragged myself out to get a lemon, but I did n't 
stay very long. 

I had made an engagement with Mrs. Hadley to call on 
some of the concession people on Thursday, but the night 
before ran my nose (quite accidentally) through a glass 



door, which in the darkness I could not see. The pane of 
glass was smashed, and my nose and general feelings some- 
what lacerated. I bought a nice lantern earlv the next 
morning. Under my efficient treatment, my nose is now 
nearly restored, and I hope to call upon some of the genial 
Hankowers in a few days. 

The new church was used twice yesterday. No special 
intimation was given to the Chinese of its readiness, but 
two hundred were present at the morning communion ser- 
vice and sixty partook. I was in the chancel with Mr. 
Locke and the Chinese deacon. As the floor is of stone, I 
knelt on a straw mat which happened to be wet and stained 
my surplice badly. But I think washing will fix it. The 
choir consisted of eight choristers whom Mr. Locke has 
formed into a sort of boarding-school, two day-school 
teachers, and three evangelists, all in white cottas. They 
sang very well — for a Chinese choir. They made a false 
start from the choir-room, and had to return and start 
over, but the congregation probably thought it was inten- 
tional. The organist is a boy of about fifteen and plays 
very well, though the organ is only a parlor organ and far 
too small for the church. The church is as cold as a sep- 
ulcher, all of brick and stone, stone floorings and no stoves, 
for that "no b'long China custom." I expect to wear two 
pairs of socks and heavy shoes, and to stand on a mat 
whenever I can. I may have to have a cap made to protect 
my poor head, and I should like to wear an overcoat, but 
that is inconvenient with a surplice. [Some of the clergy 
now wear fur-lined cassocks in winter. — Editor.] The 
little choristers are nearly spherical with clothes, and take 
up about double their proper allowance of space. 

I suppose it is a sign of proper training that I was 
shocked when Mr. Locke told me to keep my hat on in 
church after service. It took several moments' reflection 
to remind me that the uncovered head is merely a Western 
way of showing reverence, that it is inconvenient and un- 
safe in a building that is colder than "outdoors," and that 



it is incomprehensible to the Chinese, who keeps his hat on, 
if he has one, everywhere, indoors and out. So I put my 
hat on my head again, and shall try to show my reverence 
in other ways. 

.p. . m Ingleside, January 27, 1892. 

The other day I took a walk on a part of the city wall 
which runs back of us, i.e., north and west, and extends 
several miles. I don't suppose I am thoroughly acclimated 
yet, for I don't feel perfectly at home or welcome. Do you 
think you would mind being pointed at by every other per- 
son you met, and stared at by all, as some strange beast; 
marked out occasionally for the benefit of the children as 
a foreign devil who steals boys and girls; and made the 
sole aim and object of every dog within barking distance, 
by the muffled "sss-s-s-s !" of their owners ? [We have all 
been through this in our early days in China, and I have 
seen Chinese treated worse on the streets of Philadelphia. — 
Editor.] Perhaps you would n't mind it, but I rather 
think you would not enjoy it. To tell the truth, I am not 
used to the attention I receive on such occasions, and my 
head is so turned (watching the dogs) that I think, for my 
own welfare, I had better abstain from such visits. But I 
can assure you that no dog came within my reach, for I 
carried my most royal stick, always loaded, cocked, and 
primed. It is the one thing for which a Chinese dog seems 
to have a respect which amounts almost to awe. I am told, 
however, that it is not considered au fait among discreet 
foreigners to strike a Chinaman. If you should happen to 
draw blood, he will smear it over every conspicuous part of 
his person and either fall down and declare he is dead or 
go to a mandarin and depose to that fact. In either case 
you may have trouble. 

Ingleside, Hankow, China, January 31, 1892. 
I have made a venture on some corn-cakes for to-night. 
If I succeed, my future is secure. When I get a little more 



Chinese I shall tackle "Wong on the question of biscuits 
and rolls; meanwhile baker's bread and toast are my staff 
of life. Not that I don't have other things — chickens, 
pheasants, ducks, etc., are not expensive. Yesterday's 
duck was like most Chinese things, rather old. Wong said 
some people liked things that way. I requested him to 
write me as one that loved his game fresh and sound. He 

Ingleside, February 12, 1892. 
Dear All : 

This afternoon I took Wong as a guide and went to 
Wuchang to see Mr. Graves's family and Dr. Merrins. It 
was a very pleasant visit. On Thursday I played foot-ball 
for the second time. I am becoming acquainted with the 
fellows and find them very civil and rather sociable. One 
of the sailors engaged me in conversation on several occa- 
sions. At last he told me that I had a "Dublin accent." 
He said he could tell I was "not from England or Amer- 
ica, for you have a Dublin accent. Yes, and it ? s very 
pretty, too. And I should say you came from Dublin or 
Holyhead." He ought to know, for he is an Irishman, 
and his name is Murphy. 

Mr. Graves said that recently he and Dr. Merrins were 
walking in Wuchang (not Hankow), when quite a number 
of boys yelled at them (some on a previous occasion had 
stoned them). The next day he sent in his card to the 
mandarin with a complaint. The mandarin sent the police 
to see him, and he rated them soundly. They returned 
later with humble apologies, and said that they had seen 
to it that every father in their districts had spanked his 
son. The next day Mr. Graves says their walk was like 
a triumphal procession, the boys gazing at them with 
bated breath, without a sound. You see, these things can 
be easily stopped, if the officials choose to stop them; and 
foreign governments could easily compel them if they 
would. The demonstrations are not against missionaries 



as such, but as foreigners. I hear that trouble is brewing 
at Ichang, four hundred miles up the river. The Chinese 
are putting up some of their vile placards, too blasphemous 
and filthy for description, with which some parts of the 
country have been flooded. From all I can hear, there will 
be serious trouble this summer, and probably some of our 
inland friends will lose their lives. I say this not to alarm 
you, but to prepare you to hear alarming reports. The 
river, however, is likely to be secure. The British consul 
here is bestirring himself, and expects to have ten gun- 
boats on the river. Besides these, there are many belong- 
ing to the other nations, for every nation is represented 

Eemember that Hankow is one of the safest places' in 
China. When it falls, Shanghai will probably go, and all 
foreigners be driven out. Then the civilized nations will 
lay China in the dust, divide her among themselves, and 
we will start again, with some prospect of decent govern- 
ment. These are not opinions original with me. They are 
what I hear about me ; so when you hear all sorts of alarm- 
ing reports, remember what I have told you. We are well 
protected here, and likely to hear of any designs against us 
long before they are put into execution. Mr. Graves, who 
is well qualified to form an opinion, does not anticipate 
any trouble in Wuchang or Hankow. To-morrow I begin 
my English class, and next Sunday an English service. 
This week I am to learn the Chinese sentence for the Cup 
in the Lord's Supper. By doing this I can help Mr. Locke, 
whose Chinese deacon has been sent to Wuchang. 

Ingleside, Hankow, February 22, 1892. 
Dear All : 

I have started a night-school to teach English. I have 
had three meetings, with about fifty scholars, and hear that 
I am likely to have many more. All the concession police- 
men, compradors, house-boys, cooks, etc., wish to learn 



English, which gets them good positions, and there is no 
other place in Hankow where it is taught. Of course it is 
free and has no religious features. It is simply an ad- 
vertisement, and an effort to gain influence with the men. 
Yesterday I administered the Cup in the Chinese com- 
munion. I had struggled with the sentence for a week, 
and knew it only tolerably. But I managed to get through 
with it, and do not feel any uneasiness for the future. We 
had English communion at 8.30, Chinese morning prayer 
at nine, Chinese communion at 10.30 with sermon, Chinese 
evening prayer at three. In a few weeks I shall add Eng- 
lish evening prayer with sermon at 6 p.m. I think both 
English services will be well attended. There are quite a 
number of English Church people here, and only non- 
conforming ministers, though they read the English service 
in the English Chapel. Five services will make a busy 
Sunday. I usually attend daily morning and evening 
prayers and am becoming used to my Chinese books. I 
can find most of the places and follow the reading, though 
I cannot pronounce the characters. It will be a long time 
before I can preach in Chinese, and the thought of preach- 
ing in English fs a great pleasure to me. There are some 
very good church people here, and also some very careless 

I have just returned from night-school. The room was 
filled. I suppose fifty were present, ranging from ten to 
forty years — all men, of course. I made them repeat the 
alphabet after me a number of times, picking out indi- 
viduals, sometimes to correct their pronunciation. Then I 
held up various articles, gave the Chinese name and the 
English name, and made them repeat it after me. Then 
I held up the article and they gave the English, or I spoke 
the Chinese and they gave the English. I then gave short 
Chinese sentences with their translation, gave them the 
name, and showed them the action of sitting and standing, 



etc. To-morrow we are to have a blackboard. I will write 
and pronounce the name, and indicate the object, and they 
will copy on paper. It is very pleasant work and they 
seem interested. As soon as the do-nothings and the block- 
heads are scared off by these drills, we expect to have more 
books. I wish yon could see them. Some of them are very 
bright and attractive and good-looking. This work also 
helps me with my Chinese studies. 

The women's work here greatly needs a head. Mrs. 
Hadley cannot do much, though she is the nominal head of 
the Woman's Guild. Of course the head must be a woman. 

Ingleside, February 29, 1892. 
My dear All : 

My night-school is very encouraging — in fact, too en- 
couraging. The room is so crowded that I fear I shall have 
to call two classes and teach five nights. But they seem 
interested and are very interesting. I do not venture on 
complicated sentences with them, but they usually under- 
stand what I say. 

The Chinese, en masse, are a symphony in black and 
blue. Their blue is cheap and lasting, and the usual color 
for garments, especially with the poor. Their black fades, 
but it is quite good and rather common. The children, 
especially little boys, wear a great deal of scarlet, but I 
have seen some very pretty costumes among the better 
classes. They wear all colors together, yet the shades are 
so delicate that there seems to be no clashing of colors. I 
saw a fine-looking young fellow dressed in a long outer 
robe of brown, and over it a short loose jacket of brown 
velvet, buttoned obliquely across the breast, with no sleeves, 
large armholes, and reaching below the waist. I assure 
you no gentleman need feel ashamed to wear it. And the 
effect of all these colors on the street is a marked contrast 
to the sober colors at home. We rarely see women of the 
upper class on the street. Those we see wear preiiy much 
the same colors as the men. Their skirts are shorter, the 



trousers fuller, and not gathered and tied around the ankle 
as the men's are. They wear their hair carefully tucked 
up on the head (an operation which is performed about 
once a week, I think), and a queer skeleton of a cap on it. 
The most noticeable feature about them is their poor little 
feet. The binding turns the toes under the foot. In walk- 
ing they do not seem to use the heel at all, but walk with 
the whole leg, as if it were of wood. To see one of these 
women going down a long flight of stairs is a pitiful sight. 
I watched one recently. She could not go straight for- 
ward, for she had no elasticity in her feet, and probably 
would have tumbled on her head. So she slid down three 
or four steps right foot first, and then turned and went left 
foot first, and so on down the fifty or more steps. I think 
foot-binding is more prevalent here than in Shanghai. 

I took a walk through the Chinese quarter, in which 
one soon loses consciousness of the charms of nature. I 
may have remarked it before, but I reiterate, Chinese 
streets are not paved and not clean. And if the Chinese 
men are heathen, their dogs are heathener. David's words 
came to me this evening, "Many dogs are come about me." 1 
I can realize the force of the figure. The number of dogs 
that can get about a man in a short time is remarkable. 
One half-awake bark from a single cur will arouse all the 
whelps within a hundred yards. And their number is not 
inconsiderable. I estimate the dogs in China as one to 
every square yard and one on each corner. And such curs ! 
Chiefly hair and teeth and growls and legs, all of which 
they use vigorously. None came near enough for a 
friendly (?) pat with my stick. I am not quite as warlike 
as Dr. Merrins and Mr. Graves, who provoke these en- 
counters and use their clubs freely. They know the dis- 
position of each dog along their route in Wuchang, just 
what he will do when they approach, and how best to 
circumvent him. 

I have n't yet gotten over the unpleasant feeling which 

i Psalter. 


attends the knowledge that I am regarded by the persons I 
meet as either a freak of nature or a protege of the devil. 
The way they stare would be amusing if it had any limit. 
As it is, it is ineffably boring. And then one grows tired 
of being regarded as an ogre by the children and a beggar 
tramp by the dogs. But there are a good many things I 
cannot dispense with, though I would, and this, as one of 
them, must be borne. 

Ingleside, March 5, 1892. 
It takes very little to put some people in the dumps, does 
n't it? I think my last letter had a bluish tinge (I ? m not 
referring to the paper), and I fear this one will somewhat 
resemble it. Let me tell you my grievances. Firstly : The 
weather. On Sunday we had every appearance of spring. 
Tuesday continued the delusion, and Wednesday still fur- 
ther heightened it. On the latter day I sat in my room, 
with windows open and the fire nearly out. It was simply 
a perfect day. The trees were half taken in by this ex- 
tremely Chinese trick on the part of the weather. They 
put forth buds on Monday, and fairly burst into leaves 
before Tuesday. I, poor, innocent little Occidental, 
thought the trees knew what they were about, so I cut off 
my beard. I might have known it. Even at home thin 
clothes bring cold weather, and making a tennis court is a 
surer way of bringing rain than General Dyrenforth has 
ever found. Of course the thermometer immediately began 
to fall and the wind to rise, so that the budding spring 
of Thursday morning became biting winter on Friday 
evening, and to-day — Saturday — the ground has been cov- 
ered with hail and ice is forming in the streets. I think 
the thermometer must have fallen between thirty and forty 
degrees in thirty-six hours, and my spirits have accom- 
panied the mercury in its downward course, urged on by 
secondly: The mail, of course. The mail is late. The 
Gaelic was three days late when the mail reached Yoko- 
hama, and there is no telling when the mail will reach 



Hankow. Probably the steamer will burn up on the way. 
I shall find that the Hankow bag went to Cape Colony, or 
Greenland, by a slight mistake on the part of some efficient 
United States officer. Unless I get some letters by my 
birthday, I expect to pack up and leave by the next 
steamer. I am neither a block of stone nor a machine. I 
am affected by change of temperature and disappoint- 
ments, and I can't stand everything. As long as the 
weather is decent, and the mail comes at respectable inter- 
vals, I can get along without my friends and family; but 
there is a last straw. However, that last straw has not been 
reached yet, and I am fully persuaded that if I had done 
my duty this past week, I should feel differently, even with 
these slight inconveniences and others I have not men- 
tioned. You see, a man out here is at the mercy of his 
own conscience. There are enough distractions at home to 
cover over, after a time, omissions and commissions; but 
here they stand out on the unvaried and little occupied 
page of a fellow's life with startling distinctness and un- 
pleasantness. He is forced to look back and look within. 
And while introspection unquestionably has an important 
part in forming a man's character, in such a life as mine, 
where there is little external activity to occupy one's 
energy and divert one's thoughts, I think it may become 
painful and dangerous. And in this case it must share the 
blame for my low spirits. 

[The first year of a missionary's life is a hard one. (Per- 
haps the second is the hardest.) Cut off from the people 
by lack of knowledge of the language, with a very few 
fellow-workers, and they too busy to give him much time 
either by day or by evening; mentally exhausted after his 
daily struggle of several hours with a difficult language 
taught by a teacher who does n't know how to teach and 
is n't interested in teaching ; with few diversions to rest his 
mind after work, the newcomer goes through a period of 
semi-mental and spiritual discipline. It does n't seem to 
be a necessary discipline; it is difficult to see what its ad- 


vantages are. Its disadvantages are discouragement, in- 
trospection, morbidity, and often ill health. The new idea 
of having union language schools in various centers, where 
there will be experienced teachers, and the incentive of 
fellow-students, and the diversion of their society between 
times, will bring a new zest to the study of Chinese, and 
shorten the time spent in the mastery of the rudiments of 
the language. — Editor.] 

Before I go I must copy two characteristic extracts from 
a Chinese newspaper. 

A Peking woman gave birth to two pairs of twins — two 
boys and two girls. Her mother-in-law retained the two 
male babies, and gave away the two females, as she was too 
poor to keep and feed them all. Poor girls ! 

The second relates the official examination of an alleged 
"Ko-Lac-Ui member." The prisoner showed the greatest 
possible obstinacy, and though placed in a kneeling posture 
in coils of chains and stretched on a bare pole, simply 
exclaimed he was innocent. Then five hundred blows with 
the rattan were given, after which he was made to inhale 
the smoke from a roll of burning paper placed under his 
nostrils. All this did not, however, elicit anything further 
from him. He was again remanded. Probably the better 
policy would have been to say what was desired and be 
immediately beheaded. He would have been saved this 
pain, and he will probably be beheaded in the end. Later 
he was again stretched on the bare pole and tortured, 
without, however, extracting anything from him. Mr. Yu 
was of the opinion that unless some more agonizing mode 
of torture was employed, no confession could be wrung 
from the accused. The prisoner was accordingly ordered 
to have his hands tied behind his back, and then to have 
a rope attached to his hands, by means of which rope he 
was hoisted up. For some hours the prisoner was kept 
dangling in mid-air, with the weight of his whole body on 
his arms, forced as they were out of their natural position. 
The long-continued agony must have been most excru- 


dating ; nevertheless nothing incriminatory was uttered by 
the accused. There are three things here that I think de- 
serve notice. First : The brutality of the proceedings. Sec- 
ond : The fixed purpose, plainly shown, to make the man say 
he was guilty. Third : The utter absence of regret and shame 
for this treatment, shown by the publication of the report 
in a newspaper. All this shows a very low grade of civili- 
zation — almost none. 

I have received my copy of the reprint of one of the 
violent Chinese books against foreigners. It consists of 
thirty-two cartoons, with translations of their inscriptions, 
and a couple of introductory chapters on the history of 
Chinese intercourse with foreigners and their anti-foreign 
literature. I have not words to describe the character of 
these cartoons and the charges they make against foreign- 
ers generally and Christians in particular. All the foul 
stories circulated against the first gathering of the Chris- 
tian Church are repeated and elaborated and illustrated. 
That this was designed and executed by scholars and offi- 
cials, and circulated at their private expense, speaks vol- 
umes for the moral condition of this class; while the fact 
that the common people are influenced by such stories tells 
an equally sad tale of their ignorance and need of the 
religion they revile. Hunan, from which these publica- 
tions come, is resolutely closed against foreigners, and 
there are few residents among its 20,000,000 people. 
"Thick darkness covers this people/' 

The fact of the issue of this vile stuff, and the account 
I have given you of an official examination by torture, are 
strong arguments for Christianizing China. In all decent 
parts of the world such things have been relegated to the 
darkness of the past. But here they flourish and grow 
unchecked, and there is not enough moral sense in the 
whole nation to raise a cry against such atrocities. Let the 
people who praise the simple, peaceful life of the untrained 
savage and untutored natural heathen, breathe a little of 
this atmosphere, if they would know the truth. They will 



see things happening day after day, scarcely exciting com- 
ment, which, if but once perpetrated in Christendom, 
would rouse whole nations to a fever of righteous indig- 

In regard to the copy of one of these Chinese placards 
which I have, I want to add a few words. It is too vile and 
blasphemous for more than a few men to see, and will give 
you no pleasure. But nothing can give you an adequate 
idea of the depth of depravity of the scholars of China in 
printing and circulating such things by thousands. If the 
educated gentlemen can circulate such things, and the 
common people believe them, what must be the state of the 
Chinese heart ? It will give you an idea of the need of our 
work and its difficulty which volumes could not convey. 

This is Monday. Yesterday was clear and cold, moder- 
ating in the evening, so that when I went to bed I did not 
know whether to expect summer or winter during the 
night. However, I made preparations for an arctic freeze, 
so was not kept awake long by the cold. One of the great- 
est mysteries of China is how the cold manages to make 
itself felt. It is not intensely cold. The thermometer 
rarely goes below freezing-point. But, somehow or other, 
clothing and covering seem incapable of keeping me warm 
at night. In the daytime I hug the stove and exist in a 
semi-comfortable state. But I look forward to a cold night 
with dread, for I lie awake for a long time. And yet I 
have plenty of covers. I will make an inventory of last 
night's stack of blankets, etc. Under me was (1) a mat- 
tress of bamboo shavings fully four inches thick, (2) two 
thin raw cotton mattresses (Chinese, both covered with 
unbleached cotton), (3) two well-padded coverlets, (4) a 
sheet. About my body I had (1) my rode de nuit, sup- 
plemented by a pair of socks and a heavy wool undershirt ; 
(2) an afghan about my feet; (3) a blanket wrapped 
about me from shoulders to feet. Over me were six thick- 
nesses of good woolen blankets (a sheet, of course) and one 
spread. Under my pillow I spread my dressing-gown to 



keep my hands warm. As the night was not extremely 
cold, I did not suffer much and was not long kept awake. 
But my toes were cold when I went to sleep. And yet could 
an Eskimo have asked for more cover? This winter I 
expect to make a special study of this matter and reach 
some sort of a settlement, either by wearing warm night- 
clothes or by having a fire in my bedroom. [The solution 
is a hot-water bottle in the bed, and plenty of exercise by 
day. — Editor.] 

Mr. Locke has a good deal of encouragement in the work 
at present. He is trying a new departure. He has had 
guest-room work, which I have described as the conversa- 
tion over the pipe and cup of tea. But this has been a 
private and personal attack. To extend the scope of the 
plan, he now has daily public preaching, by himself and his 
evangelists, in two rooms below. The rooms are furnished 
in Chinese style, and a coolie is always at hand with tea; 
while the pipe circulates from hand to hand and from 
mouth to mouth. A notice on the outside wall commands 
a street which is unceasingly traversed by the Chinese, and 
the best class of them, the honest (?) (comparatively) 
countrymen. The attempt has been hitherto encouraging. 
Several of my night scholars have appeared there, and 
several of these guests have come to the guest-room for 
further information. According to Mr. Locke, the advan- 
tage over the usual street chapel lies in this, that by accept- 
ing your hospitality the guest is in some sort bound to 
respectful behavior. In the street chapel they often come 
only to jeer and annoy. I have not attended any of these 
meetings, but I can hear the evangelists preaching below 
me, and they are vociferous and apparently most earnest. 

Mr. Locke is a very broad and liberal man. I believe he 
is unusually earnest and prayerful. His view is that no 
very deep or wonderful spiritual experience is to be ex- 
pected or required of the Chinese as a beginning. An 
appreciation of the fundamentals of our religion, and an 
earnest desire to be saved through Christ, are enough to 



start with, and on these Christian character and life must 
be built up. We cannot expect any very great hatred of 
sin or overpowering gratitude for its forgiveness, when it 
is a labor to persuade them that they commit any sins. 
"Oh, no, you are mistaken ; I am a very decent sort of fel- 
low. I don't steal or kill." I think he has a better appre- 
ciation of their needs and difficulties than most men. He 
and I get on splendidly together, and I am requested by 
him to do just as I am in the habit of doing, or as I wish. 
I am perfectly free. 

Ingleside, March 13, 1892. 
My dear All : 

It seems a month since I last wrote, though my diary 
shows that only a week has elapsed. Friday morning 
Bishop Hare arrived [on a pastoral visit from America. — 
Editor], and with him one of our missionaries, Mr. 
Sowerby, on his way back to Ichang, from which the 
riots drove him last summer. Mr. Sowerby is staying 
with me. The bishop has allowed himself only four days 
in Hankow and Wuchang, but he makes good use of his 
time, and is learning all he can. Mr. Locke and I are 
charmed with him, and would give anything if he were 
our bishop. He is just the sort of man we need, sagacious, 
experienced, and what we need so much — spiritual. Mr. 
Sowerby prevailed on him to confirm a class, and it was 
intended to have a large baptism in the afternoon, al- 
though he was not present. So Saturday there was an 
examination of the candidates for baptism. Mr. Sowerby 
and three Chinese deacons, nice fellows, conducted the 
examination of about sixty persons, and I sat through it 
all. I understood parts of what was said, and Mr. Locke 
translated some for me. Two opium-smokers were dis- 
covered among the applicants and remanded until they 
had reformed. Their cases are quite sad. One makes his 
living by selling rice-cakes in the opium-dens. So long as 
he carries on his trade in such places he cannot hope to 




give up the habit. If he gives up his business he may 
starve, for every occupation is overcrowded and he may 
not be able to find work, even if his vice has left him 
strength enough to do hard work. Yesterday morning the 
bishop confirmed eighty-seven men, women, and children. 
He learned the Chinese of the usual sentence and repeated 
it, and, Mr. Sowerby says, did remarkably well. He gave 
them a short talk which Mr. Sowerby interpreted. At 
communion a large number partook. I do not think there 
could have been fewer than two hundred. Mr. Sowerby 
and I distributed the elements. And the congregation — I 
wish you could have seen it ! The benches will seat from 
six hundred to eight hundred comfortably. Yesterday 
three hundred school children were packed on a few 
benches, the transepts probably held over three hundred 
women and babies, and the rest of the church was packed 
with men. Some sat in the aisles, some stood, some were 
coming and going continually, and altogether the Chinese 
estimated them all at one thousand, and probably they are 
not far wrong. These, excepting most of the children, 
are baptized Christians. Part of them belong to our 
church here, but most of them are the parishioners of our 
three deacons, who have churches in the Chinese city, and 
who came themselves and brought their people with them. 
One of them has four hundred members. The crowd was 
very orderly, considering its size and material, though 
there was enough confusion and disorder to be annoying 
to me, who have not gotten over the habits of home. The 
morning service took about three hours, beginning about 
10.30. Then there was an intermission, and it was in- 
tended to have the baptism (about one hundred candi- 
dates) at two o'clock. Meanwhile the people were hungry, 
their breakfast hour having passed while they were in 
church. Some who had come from a distant part of the 
native city had eaten nothing all day, and it was then 
nearly two o'clock. Yet they were well-behaved. But they 
roused up when there was an appearance of bakers' trays 



of dumplings — one of the cheapest kinds of Chinese food. 
(It looks like an uncooked Maryland biscuit, and has a 
little jam inside. They cost a quarter of a cent apiece.) 
There was some rushing and pushing to present the tick- 
ets they had received. I kept one gate and had to do some 
brisk shoving and some cruel refusing. But finally they 
were provided — not, however, till we had sent away many 
of them so as to be able to handle the others. It was then 
so late, and so many candidates for baptism had come 
away after getting their four dumplings, that we had only 
evening prayer and a short sermon by one of the deacons. 
The bishop had gone to Wuchang. The candidates will 
be baptized in smaller detachments. I think the service 
was very successful and will encourage and help the Chris- 
tians and be a great advertisement to the people. But Mr. 
Locke does not think he will repeat it in just that form. 

During the communion service Mr. Locke and the dea- 
cons left the church. I thought he had gone because he 
was tired, for he had been exposed greatly in cold rooms, 
and had not only caught cold, but was hoarse from talking 
and singing. I thought he had gone to rest in preparation 
for the large baptism in the afternoon, but afterward 
found that he had gone to look after the children. Then 
I began to realize — and even more during the service — 
how different is a pastor's life here from that at home. 
He must be head nurse. Whv, if one of those children had 
strayed off and been lost or injured, the old cry of "steal- 
ing children" might have aroused the city against us. He 
took the three hundred little chaps into the guest-room, 
made them repeat the Creed and Lord's Prayer (which 
they are taught in the schools), and then he and the dea- 
cons preached to them until the grown people came out. 
In this way he not only kept them together and out of 
harm and mischief, but had an opportunity to teach them 

I have heard only once from the Massies by letter, but 
Mr. Sowerby and Bishop Hare bring me rather amazing 



reports from St. John's. They say that I am living like a 
hermit in gloomy loneliness, that I am unhappy and dis- 
contented, and am starving. Altogether the picture is 
calculated to make me appear very miserable. I don't 
think I have written anything to justify this, though I 
have written very freely. But I must deny that I am 
wretched or discontented. In fact, I believe I have never 
been better satisfied, all things considered. 

Ingleside, March 26, 1892. 

I have been reading a very interesting book called "Chi- 
nese Characteristics." [Enlightened Chinese resent this 
book as a caricature of the people. — Editor.] The style is 
bright and witty, and it gives an idea of Chinese char- 
acter that I think nothing else could do, short of a long 
residence here. The writer is Arthur H. Smith, a mission- 
ary in the north. Every one seems to speak highly of the 
work both for truthfulness and interest. 

I have been impressed lately with the abundance and 
variety of the noises about me. Just at present a crowd 
of the ragged school children are making the usual Chi- 
nese row in the yard directly below me. But that is an 
incidental, not the regular disturbance. Let me give you 
the program of regulars. Between 6 and 7 a.m. from fifty 
to a hundred coolies gather at the tan-yard, a few yards 
from my window, and begin to scream. I suppose they are 
trying to attract attention and get a job. Several morn- 
ings I arose to see what had so stirred their angry passions. 
I saw this swarm of men clustered about a building oppo- 
site, surging back and forth, yelling and screaming. Occa- 
sionally a man would rise from the crowd on the shoulders 
of others and seem to be trying to scale the wall of the 
building. If I had just come to China, no one could have 
persuaded me that this was not a riot in full blast and that 
my turn would not come next. As it was, I concluded it 
was an honest effort, injudiciously made, to earn their 



daily bread. So I went back to bed and awoke to find the 
crowd at work and peaceable, though far from quiet. They 
almost incessantly shout while at work, and when eighty 
men are carrying heavy loads of skins to or from the tan- 
nery, the noise they make is positively amazing. This goes 
on intermittently all day, and is the background of the 
other noises. Then during the day I hear bugle-calls, 
gongs beating, drum-taps and cannon, at short intervals, 
from the camp on the wall within sight of my window, 
and there seems to be a chronic saluting from the Chinese 
cannon all over the province. Then from earliest morn- 
ing there is a constant stream of people from the country 
passing my window. Most of them are talking, and when 
a Chinese talks (or quarrels) his idea seems to be, not to 
say something which is worth hearing, but to say what he 
has to say so that the greatest number of people shall hear 
it. I may not have mentioned that the small tradesmen 
of China are peripatetic. The barber, cobbler, petty black- 
smith, corn-cutter, peddler, caterer, carry their establish- 
ments about, hitched to the two ends of a pole slung across 
the shoulders. If a customer is scented, the establishment 
is lowered and trade begins. You see the advantage of 
having the tradesman come to you. Now, as Chinese 
houses have n't any windows (worth mentioning, if any at 
ail) which open on the street, the attention of the Chinese 
must be attracted otherwise than through the eyes, so each 
tradesman has his distinctive musical (?) instrument, 
making a distinctive noise. One has the faintly sounding 
bell with a deep note; another carries a little drum with 
a handle, which he revolves so that the little bullets fas- 
tened to it with strings strike first one side, then the other, 
making a rolling beat; another shakes five or six brass 
pieces, joined together, which strike on one another in 
succession; another has five or six cash (brass coins) on a 
wire which is set in a wooden frame, which he shakes — 
the latter is the corn-cutter, I am told. Those who have 
whistles, etc., blow them. Then the wheel-barrows ! The 



creaks and groans that issue from them are blood-curdling. 
They are made entirely of wood, axles and all, and seem to 
be innocent of any grease, because, as Mr. Smith says, "To 
those who are gifted with absence of nerves, the squeak is 
cheaper than the oil." Sometimes they sound like the 
screams and groans of tortured children; again, like pigs 
at slaughtering-time. In addition to this imitation of a 
pig, my humble abode is frequently passed by the genuine 
article, generally screaming lustily at the end of a rope that 
has been drawn through his nose or ear, or tightly about his 
neck. These are the common every-day sounds, to which 
may be added vigorous preaching in the room immedi- 
ately below me, and the noise incident on the attendance 
of about fifty small boys at prayers twice a day. Some of 
the sounds mentioned above continue into the night. Be- 
sides these, there are some which are especially prominent 
at night. The manager of the tan-yard keeps four or five 
healthy dogs, and every family in the empire from one to 
ten starving curs. These rest neither by day nor by night, 
and at night are especially pronounced. It is now five 
minutes before ten, Sunday night, and I have just heard 
the drum on the wall tuning up for the night's festivities. 
The gong will soon begin, and the guns ; and then, just as 
I am about to fall asleep, some fire-crackers will be set off. 
Then, when these noises are resting, I shall hear the mono- 
tone of a watchman as he hammers two pieces of bamboo 
together all night long. Just now things are very quiet. 
I can hear only the dogs and the drum and the creaking of 
the shutters — and a Chinaman coughing in the ward next 
to my dining-room. (He is not known to be diseased, so 
don't be alarmed.) There goes a gun ! 

I shall soon begin afternoon services on Sunday. Quite 
a number of the concession people have volunteered the 
information that they intend to come, and I hope the ser- 
vice can be made attractive to the men of the place, who 
are not a church-going crowd. There seems to be little 
real piety apart from some of the missionaries. 



Ingleside, April 2, 1892. 

Two or three things of more or less interest have hap- 
pened recently. One occurred early this week on the 
bund. A number of Chinese youths are attending the 
military examinations in Han Yang. One of them 
mounted his pony, rode through Hankow to the concession 
and down the bund. On his return he galloped his horse, 
as fast as he could go, and made for the gate which leads 
into the Chinese city. Just as his horse reached it, he 
shied, and, being a Chinaman, the rider was pitched to the 
ground and his face badly cut and disfigured. He was 
hauled into the police station for his disturbance, and 
word immediately spread through Hankow that the for- 
eigners were killing a Chinese. Ten or fifteen of his fel- 
low-students mounted and came for the concession, and 
by judiciously scattered remarks that they were going to 
drive the foreigners out and raid the concession, brought 
a crowd of about two thousand rowdies with them. The 
rabble was stopped near the gate, but the horsemen, sev- 
eral of whom were armed with pistols, rode into the con- 
cession. On the appearance of the police they retreated 
in haste, and have not since been heard of. Most of these 
Chinese seem to be arrant cowards. They hunt only in 
packs, and even then can often be routed by one or two 
determined men. 

I will mention another incident, taken from a native 
paper. A man's house had been set on fire, and many 
others burned with it. Although on examination it was 
fully shown that the man was in no way to blame, and 
had himself lost everything, the magistrate punished him. 
As you are not Chinese, you may fail to see the justice or 
wisdom of this. But the Solomonic wisdom of the officer 
explained that the neighbors who suffered might void their 
discontent on this unhappy man unless by this device all 
ground of resentment should be removed. Commend me 
to the Chinese for perspicuous perversity ! 



There need be no trouble about the money coming di- 
rectly to me. Send it to Dr. Langford, marked "Special 
for Hankow, at Mr. Ingle's discretion/' and I will report 
to you the use to which it is put. Money that comes in 
that way is of the greatest service, for wc always need 
more than the appropriation, and need money for uses not 
included in the objects for which the appropriation is sent. 

We have had a tiresome day's work to-day. At the Chi- 
nese communion service a large number were baptized — 
about sixty, I think. They were the results of the work 
of one of the deacons in Hankow, and some of them had 
been waiting a long time. I think there must have been 
six hundred in the congregation, many of them school 

A great many inquiries are still made about the Eng- 
lish evening service, and many people have expressed their 
intention of coming. I think I shall try to have the first 
service Easter evening. It will be a great help to me to be 
preaching. I feel the need of something to keep me up. 
Though I can join to some extent in the Chinese services, 
they do not feed me, and I am hungry for our own good 
old English language and the beautiful service of our 

Ingleside, April 12, 1892. 
My dear Papa : 

I see the announcement of the passage of the Exclusion 
Bill. I don't see what the Chinese can do in return other 
than to order us out. The uncertainty as to the outcome 
of this will be another burden for us this summer. If we 
should be forced to go, Mr. Locke thinks the English 
Church would gladly take up our work. I begin to believe 
that popular government is a dangerous thing. 

This, the exclusion question, has recurred time and 
again in our dealings with China and Japan, and is at the 
present time again critical in connection with the Alien 



Land Bill recently passed by the California legislature. 
Both the labor interests and our fellow-citizens in Cali- 
fornia should and do have the sympathy of the whole coun- 
try in their difficult race problem, and the National Gov- 
ernment owes the Pacific States its efficient support in the 
proper settlement of the whole matter. But, having said 
so much, we cannot but add that the interested parties in 
California have shown themselves grossly crude, and also 
weak-spirited, in their dealings with reference to the mag- 
nificently proud and sensitive people of Japan and to the 
less well-informed and more childlike people of China. 
And as for the treatment of these peoples as individuals 
at our ports of entry in Honolulu and on the Pacific coast, 
it is rude and often absolutely brutal. If these affairs 
were locally placed in the paws of so many grizzly bears, 
the consequent bearishness would be an improvement on 
our "humanity." The recent resolutions of the Japanese 
residents of the Hawaiian Islands are founded on fact and 
deserve the consideration of our claim to fair-mindedness. 

Ingleside, April 20, 1892. 
My dear May : 

Thank you again for the recipes. How tempting they 
sound ! But, to tell the truth, these directions sound to me 
rather complicated. I had expected something like the 
following: "Slice an onion, boil for half an hour with a 
bone (no meat required) in half a gallon of water, season 
to suit the smell ; serve hot !" Or directions for making 
"a delicious pudding from a handful of oatmeal and some 
stale biscuits." Have I overtasked the skill even of my 
accomplished sister? 

As for riots, I suppose that the reason that summer is 
their schedule-time is because it is easier to exist then, and 
consequently the people have more time for amusements. 
But things seem quiet now, and we occasionally hear of 
laudable efforts on the part of the government. There is 



no special reason to fear now, least of all in Hankow. As 
for the pistol, I don't feel the need of it. But after talk- 
ing the matter over with Mr. Locke, I have decided to 
keep my eyes open for one. I hope never to use it for my- 
self, but it might help to ward off from the women and 
children of the place the most horrible barbarities, in 
which the unrestrained Chinese is an adept. [Whatever 
the barbarities in the treatment of foreign women which 
can be laid at the door of the Chinese, and they are many, 
they have almost invariably taken the form of mutilation 
and murder; but we do not remember any authentic ac- 
counts of prolonged torture, and it is certainly to their 
credit that the desire of the Chinese is for their own, and 
that, perhaps without exception, the purity of foreign 
womanhood has been respected, though we believe the ques- 
tion was once raised in connection with the sacking of the 
convent in Tientsin. — Editor.] A well-directed stream 
of water is said to be the best mob-scatterer in the world, 
but it is not convenient for the pocket. 

Papa asks about the concession and its people. It is 
perhaps as long as Church Street, and is two blocks deep. 
The people are government representatives. I should 
think a dozen nationalities could be found there — imperial 
customs officers, bankers, merchants (chiefly in tea and 
hides), steamer and shipping company men, and mis- 
sionaries. Quite a number have families. I think we 
could muster at this time one hundred men, most of them 
young or middle-aged. We are under the government of 
her Britannic Majesty's consul, Mr. Gardner. [In Han- 
kow there are a number of separate concessions — British, 
French, German, Eussian, Japanese, and so forth — lying 
side by side along the river bund; the British being the 
largest and including the major part of the foreign busi- 
ness, even to the present day. The center of the mission 
work in Hankow, with which Ingle was connected, has 
always been in the British concession. It was the Cathe- 
dral Church and its branches are now well distributed 



and include very active work, especially in the native 
city. — Editor.] The affairs of the concession are regu- 
lated by a council. The preponderance in everything 
is English, though the Russians are wealthy and impor- 
tant. As is to be expected under the circumstances, most 
of the young men are careless livers, but I have been 
pleasantly surprised, when I joined them in games and 
talked with them, at hearing almost nothing that was 
objectionable. I believe there are fine fellows among them 
who have wandered off, but are not vicious, and may be 
helped, if the man who tries to help them can win their 
friendship and respect. Most of the missionaries have 
nothing to do with them, consequently few attend church. 
I think, too, that many of these men and women are used 
to the Church of England, and have no fondness for non- 
conformists, so that they are in a special sense our charge. 

June 18, 1892. 
All jurisdiction on the part of the English Church along 
the Yang-tse has been definitely given to our church ; any 
chaplain of an English church within these limits is under 
our bishop, and the responsibility actually and inevitably 
falls on us. So I do not feel that I am doing work outside 
my proper lines, while I should be glad to be relieved of 
part of it. 

The history of the definition of jurisdiction by bishops 
of the Anglican Communion in China is a matter of con- 
siderable interest to those affected, and has from time to 
time involved not a little friction, certain important ques- 
tions-having been settled only in very recent years — for- 
tunately, as in all recent Anglo-American questions, by 
diplomatic means. The first bishop ordained in China was 
undoubtedly an American (the first Bishop Boone, in 
Shanghai), and had the American Church claimed and 
held unwaveringly its jurisdiction, no serious question 
need ever have arisen; but there was at least one period 


which gave ground to the claim of the English Church 
that a certain amount of jurisdiction in the Yang-tse Val- 
ley had been waived by the American Church, and that the 
Anglican bishop had been permitted to inaugurate Chi- 
nese work in various river-ports, particularly Shanghai. 
We believe it was never for a moment desired by the Amer- 
ican episcopate to have jurisdiction over the British for- 
eign congregations, although its priests in Hankow have 
for years officiated in the English church there. It was 
entirely with regard to the Chinese work that the matter 
was in dispute. 

As bishop, later, — and that was long after the division 
of the territory of China between the bishops of the Eng- 
lish and American churches — Ingle took considerable in- 
terest in the efforts made to settle the matter of the Chi- 
nese work, and always held out for the American claim; 
but it was not until several years after his death, under 
the episcopate of Bishop Graves and of Ingle's successor, 
Bishop Roots of Hankow, that the Chinese work of the 
English Missions in the Yang-tse Valley was finally 
handed over to the two American bishops. 

Ingleside, Easter day, April, 1892. 

I attended only one Chinese service yesterday, as I 
wished to save myself for the evening and our first Eng- 
lish service, which was held at six o'clock. We have been 
very much gratified at the interest people have shown. 

On Saturday I wrote a notice of our services which Mr. 
Oxley of the Bank had carried by the Bank coolie to all 
the firms and families of the concession. As a result, we 
had a splendid congregation for so small a place. I did 
not see any other missionaries, for most of them have their 
own services, which are not, as a rule, popular with the 
resident foreigners, who prefer the English service. I use 
this instead of the American at both services. I greatly 
prefer ours, but the differences, though so slight, are some- 
what confusing, so I consult their convenience. Yester- 



day we had at service not only the nicest and "highest- 
toned" people, the consuls, etc., but a fair showing of 
young men> and some customs men, who, I am sure, rarely, 
if ever, go to church. So we are greatly encouraged. The 
concession will soon have large additions to its people in 
the shape of tea merchants and other employees, for the 
tea season is at hand. These we hope to interest. 

We men went for a walk in the rain and tramped some 
distance into the country, and on our way back took shelter 
in a temple from a heavy shower. Some men were making 
a coffin, and several were soon gathered about us, who ex- 
pressed great interest in everything that pertained to us. 
Aiter a while we left them, followed by a crowd of small 
boys yelling, "Yang^gwae dzuh!" ("Foreign devil!"). We 
managed to walk away from them, and were not far from 
the boat when I, who was walking in the rear, felt some- 
thing strike my neck and lodge in my collar. It came 
from the door of a house as I was passing. I stopped, 
turned back, and with a stern and menacing countenance 
looked in the open door. There were several women and 
girls and a man or two inside, who were bowing, and seem- 
ing to protest they "did n't mean to." As they really 
seemed good-natured and friendly, I forbore to kill them 
and burn the house, but passed on. The missile was a bit 
of sugar-cane, which the Chinese are very fond of chew- 
ing. [They probably spat it out as the party passed by. — 

Ingleside, May 1, 1892. 
My dear Papa : 

In bad weather I amuse myself in the afternoon 
by the riverside, listening to and watching the boat- 
men. I have recently seen two boats unloading pigs. Most 
of the pigs (all of the native ones, I think) are black with 
short snouts and long shaggy hair, and lack the intelligent 
and aristocratic look of our pigs. They are not treated 
with much respect, and I was amused at the way they 



were unloaded. The boats could not come alongside the 
bank, so they stood several yards offshore, and the pigs 
were hauled up from the hold on deck. The natural han- 
dles of the animal were used — ears (very long) and tail — 
with a grip on the long hair of the back occasionally. By 
these each one was lugged up, amid blood-curdling shrieks, 
which were suddenly cut short as he was plunged into the 
water. If he started at once for the nearer shore, he was 
undisturbed ; but if he headed for the other shore, he was 
mercilessly hauled and beaten back with boat-hooks until 
he finally clambered up the bank and joined the herd on a 
little patch of ground. I saw a hundred pigs landed in 
this way, and they seemed none the worse for the swim. 

Ingleside, May 8, 1892. 
My dearest Eia : 

Friday morning: I had a visit from two of the Com- 
mittee on the English Church. They told me that the 
missionaries had definitely withdrawn, by note, from their 
work in the English Church. Our mission was accord- 
ingly asked to hold one service for them each Sunday until 
they can make definite arrangements. As Mr. Graves had 
agreed to help, we promised them to do as they asked. 

Saturday I felt pretty badly all day and did not accom- 
plish any work, but I doctored myself and about five went 
to Mr. Oxley's, for it was his tennis afternoon. I wish I 
could describe all the charming features of one of these 
occasions — the large garden, beautifully kept, bright with 
many blossoms; the carefully prepared turf, with the 
courts marked with tapes, and the coolies dressed in white 
and blue, picking up the balls ; the table on the green, with 
handsome silver and pretty china, and laden with tea, 
sandwiches, and cake; and the guests, ladies and gentle- 
men, dressed chiefly in white, playing or sitting and talk- 
ing. It was a pretty picture, and I had a delightful time, 
though I left early to be at my Chinese choir practice. 



To-day I have had a good deal to do, and I don't know 
how I ? d have done it if I had not felt much better than 
yesterday. My first service was at eleven o'clock in the 
English Church, where I conducted the service and 
preached. It was very warm. There were punkahs swing- 
ing all over the church, and one just opposite me, over the 
choir, but none for me. I afterward spoke of it to Mr. 
Oxley, and I think he will have it attended to. I see no 
reason why every member of the congregation, and even 
the choir, should be fanned, while the minister, who cer- 
tainly has most of the work to do, is left to swelter. 

I have a suggestion to make to Papa for the Guild. It 
was inspired by a notice of the success of similar attempts 
by Rev. A. B. Kinsolving. It is this : That the Guild use 
part of its money, perhaps a fixed sum, each year, for sev- 
eral years, in fixing up a Chinese museum on a small scale. 
I will be their agent and ship them the things. They could 
thus have, without great cost, a collection of clothes, tools, 
books, etc., which would give them some idea of this people, 
and be interesting to the community at large. I am sure 
it could be made exceedingly attractive, and, if individuals 
become interested in it, might be the nucleus of a valuable 
collection. Tell Papa to think over this and, if he ap- 
proves it, put it before the Guild. 

Ingleside, May 15, 1892. 
I am amused at one family trait that is conspicuous in 
most of them 1 — worry. If I tell of possible dangers, you 
are worried; if I do not, you are worried for fear I am 
keeping something from you. My dear family, will noth- 
ing convince you of my security, except to come and see? 
I assure you I have not the slightest ground of fear for 
Hankow. At present our harbor is alive with ships — two 
men-of-war (more coming) and four or five immense 
European tea-ships (and more coming), and the conces- 
sion full of people. Besides these, we have at least one 

1 Members of the family. 



steamer a day going to or coming from Shanghai, and it 
is easy to get away from here. The real danger is to the 
missionaries away from the ports. The rebels in the north 
might be a million miles away, as far as their effect on us 
is concerned. 

As to the overwork, I am in no immediate danger of 
that. I have night-school only twice a week now. My 
time is well filled, and I have none to spare. But I take my 
exercise time every day, generally in tennis, and read 
newspapers besides. My English preaching takes a great 
deal of thought in its preparation, but it is great pleasure 
and helps me. 

The crews of the English men-of-war attended morning 
service in addition to the inhabitants. Just now this place 
is thronged with tea-merchants, some with their wives, and 
this morning I had probably one hundred in my con- 
gregation at the English Church. Most of the people, 
church-goers, were at morning service, and two services a 
day go beyond the Christianity of most people in this 
region. And yet I must say I have been agreeably surprised 
at some things I have seen in them. They are frequently 
very careless livers, but it is not to be wondered at. They 
have little public opinion to support them. But more than 
that, I think, is the fact that their religious life has often 
no overseer. When they have services, they are generally 
held by men whom they do not know and who do not 
understand them, because they know nothing of their life 
and have nothing in common. From what I have seen 
and heard in Hankow, I should say that the systematic 
avoidance of the foreigners by the missionaries is a bad 
thing. They could see more of them, without interfering 
seriously with their work, and might thus be a leavening 
power, whereas now they are often unknown, even by sight, 
to the foreigners. I find that I can take my exercise more 
pleasantly and more profitably with the foreigners than 
otherwise, and it takes no more time. So I do so, and feel 
sure I am right in doing so. The tennis has generally 



been delightful. I think I can hold my own against any 
of the fellows I have played so far, and look forward to the 
summer without dread, so long as I can count on this. 

In answer to Papa's question as to what time it is here 
when it is 10.30 a.m. of March 27 in Frederick, the differ- 
ence is, I think, about thirteen and a half hours, and we 
are ahead of you, so that at that hour it is about 12 p.m. 
cf Sunday and my day's work is done before his begins. 


i Ingleside, May 22, 1892. 
My dear Father : 

We do not play tennis till five, and at that hour the heat 
has greatly moderated and we play chiefly in the shade. I 
played four times last week, and, as a result, am in fine 
condition — better than before. At other times the ladies 
are at home and the men at business. There seems to be 
no evening visiting, or one does not meet the people except 
at formal dinners, and many of them not even then. As I 
have attended only one formal dinner, my experiences in 
that line have happily been limited. These afternoons are 
so pleasant to me, and I look forward to them with so 
much interest, that I sometimes feel that I am growing 
very worldly. But when I stop to think how much better 
I feel after playing, how the prospect of it brightens the 
whole day and makes my work more pleasant, I come to the 
conclusion that I am doing right. I think that I shall join 
the Golf Club when tennis wanes, and in that way will be 
able to get exercise during most of the year. But golf is 
more expensive. 

I grow more and more fond of the Gardners and Oxleys, 
and find them both good people and very kind friends. I 
know them better than any other people. [A rapid change 
from his "griffinish" expressions with regard to English 
people. See p. 53. — Editor.] 

To-day we had another baptism of sixteen men, the 
work of Rev. Mr. Hwang, one of the deacons who are 



studying with me. They were a fine lot of young fellows, 
most of whom have degrees, and two are employed in a 
mandarin's yamen. All three of the deacons are good fel- 
lows and very successful, but Hwang especially so. He is 
a very hard worker, and Mr. Locke said yesterday that he 
feared he was working himself away. An excellent fault, 
is n't it ? He is bright and quick. 

We had rather a sad exhibition of human nature about 
ten days ago. Mr. Locke has organized a Friday social 
meeting for the men of our church here and Deacon 
Wang's (not Hwang's) congregation in the city. They 
gathered about 7 p.m., attended evening prayer, then spent 
the evening in the guest-room below me, talking, playing 
games, and leaving about nine, after light refreshments. 
On a recent occasion of this sort one of Wang's workers 
seemed more engrossed with his child, during the service, 
than seemed proper to one of Mr. Locke's men (a fellow 
employed in some inferior work), so he rebuked him. As 
soon as service was over and the men were outside, they 
proceeded to the national duel of reviling, screaming at the 
pitch of their lungs, calling each other, I imagine, some 
very unpleasant names. Mr. Locke managed to shut them 
up, but the clan feeling had been aroused, and Wang said 
one of his church members had been insulted and his peo- 
ple would not stay. He refused to listen to reason and 
went off in a huff, though Mr. Locke reminded him that 
not only was he, a deacon, entirely subject to Mr. Locke 
and liable to have his pay withdrawn, but that the con- 
gregation itself had been gathered by Mr. Locke before 
Wang came. The next day Mr. Locke dismissed the com- 
batants from employment. Both of these were to blame 
and had made themselves somewhat objectionable before. 
Wang, however, soon came to his senses and went to see 
Mr. Locke. He acknowledged his fault with tears, and 
expressed himself ready to endure any punishment; and 
after being shown what a serious fault it was, he was re- 
stored to favor, and has been himself ever since. Last 

C lie 3 


Friday he was present at the meeting, and everything 
seems to have turned out for the best. You can see that 
each missionary has many of the cares and responsibilities 
of a bishop. The prospect of such a thing is overpowering. 
Last Friday I introduced the game of "questions" among 
the men, and they seemed much pleased with it. I sup- 
pose you remember it. One goes out, and the others agree 
on some subject which he tries to guess by questioning 
them in turn. One Friday they were taken up with some 
"wire troubles" (puzzles) which the choir-boys had copied 
from some I had. They have games of their own as well. 
I am going to try by and by to master some of these. Sev- 
eral of them have some resemblance to chess or checkers. 

Ingleside, May 28, 1892. 
My dear little sister Ria : 

The church trouble continues, and I see I am bound to 
get some of the odium. Mr. Foster (a London Mission 
man) called to see me to tell me how rudely he had been 
treated by the present committee, and how infamously that 
committee had acted throughout. He undoubtedly had 
grievances, but I doubt if he could maintain his position 
in a court of law. I have talked the matter over with Mr. 
Locke and with the English consul, and have decided to 
continue as I am doing. The consul — the highest au- 
thority here — says the acting committee is the true one, 
and until this decision is reversed by a higher judge I 
intend to act on it. It is a deplorable state of affairs, and 
there has been great want of tact and charity on both 

Two little things that have recently occurred have 
cheered me. One was the offer by a young business man, 
who has recently come here, to read the lessons for me in 
the morning service when I have two services. I don't 
yet know enough about his life and character to be able to 
say that I shall accept his offer, but I hope to be able to do 
so — more for his sake than mine. 



Yesterday morning we had the usual service in the Eng- 
lish church and a good congregation. There must have 
been fifty sailors present, and almost everybody listened 
well. After the service I took a quiet tiffin with the Ox- 
leys and enjoyed it very much. They are wealthy and live 
handsomely, but I did not feel overpowered, for they are 
so kind. Just before going there I was stopped by a man 
whom I recognized as a church-goer and communicant, 
but whose name I did not know. He prefaced his remarks 
by saying I had called on all the other outdoor customs 
employees except himself, and he wanted me to come to see 
him. The men on whom I called live in the adjoining 
house, while he lives on the steamboat hulk down on the 
river, and I had known nothing about him. None of 
these men are in society here, and I called on them in the 
hopes of winning their friendship and bringing them to 

This morning, soon after breakfast, I had a visit from 
two Chinese, one of whom showed me some testimonials as 
to the ability of one, Wong Tien Yu, as a pilot ; he said he 
was a friend of my Wong, and I supposed that my boy had 
run off and gotten a better position elsewhere, and had sent 
these papers by his friend as the friend's credentials. I 
understand that he wanted me to write some sort of "char- 
acter" for Wong and pay this man the balance I owe Wong. 
The American gunboat and Ichang were somehow mixed 
up with the affair, and I was dreadfully puzzled. Still I 
was about to act as I supposed they desired, but decided 
to send first for my present cook. He questioned them, 
and I learned from him that, on the strength of my being 
an American and the employer of Wong, Wong's friend 
desired me to write a testimonial of his (the friend's) skill 
as a pilot, and thus get him a position as pilot on the 
American gunboat when she goes to Ichang. I told the 
gentlemen that, owing to the deplorable fact that I had 
never seen them before and did not know whether or not 



tKey could steer a boat, such a service from me was quite 
out of the question, and they politely left. It was a very 
Chinesy affair. Soon after, just as I was starting to call 
on the gunboats, Deacon Hwang called with three promis- 
ing children and their nurses to pay their respects, this 
being a visiting season. The little ones nosed about, and I 
allowed them to stick their hands up with some of my 
candy. After three quarters of an hour they left, but just 
as I was setting out for the ship Hwang reappeared with 
three of his assistants, who also called to show their polite- 
ness. They were interested in my photographs, especially 
groups of the family. When I showed them my books, they 
asked if I could read the Hebrew, Greek, etc., Bibles I 
have, and on being told that I could, one of them politely 
pronounced me a sage, an honor which I modestly repu- 

Ingleside, June 6, 1892. 

Thursday afternoon the British admiral came to Han- 
kow, and there was tremendous cannonading forthwith. 
In a little while the captain of every war-vessel in the 
harbor was in his gig, racing to greet him, as if everything 
depended on getting there first. Mr. Gardner, at whose 
house we were playing tennis, donned his uniform and 
went. In short, our games for that afternoon were broken 
up, and we went out on the bund to see the sights. Satur- 
day Mrs. Oxley gave up her afternoon to the Gardners, and 
the whole concession was invited to a reception, with ten- 
nis, given to the British admiral — and he was sick and 
did not come. 

Yesterday St. Paul's was filled with Chinese who came 
to see the baptism of thirty persons, nine women (the out- 
come of Mrs. Hadley's Guild), four or five boys, and the 
rest men. I did not see it, but Mr. Locke says it was very 
impressive, and the candidates were serious. He said their 
faces looked as if they had come under the influence of a 
new power. I trust they may show its influence. 

The weather has not been very oppressive yet, and we 



have frequently had nice cold days like this. The after- 
noons are generally pleasant, the nights warm. My three 
chief annoyances are sounds, smells, and feelings (mos- 
quitoes). But I am getting somewhat used to these, and 
even to the tannery smells; but the bugs torment me at 
night. They range from the tiniest gnats to creatures a 
couple of inches long, and are innumerable. When I go 
to bed, their scorched and mangled corpses surround me 
and cover the corner of my table on which the lamp stands. 
This would be a happy hunting-ground for an entomolo- 
gist. My mosquito-net is rather ragged and does not afford 
perfect protection, but I thought it could be patched, and 
was a little astonished at Wong's interest in my comfort 
when he several times declared it "no good" and insisted 
on my buying another, which I declined to do. [A Chinese 
mosquito can find a single, minute hole in utter darkness 
and within ten minutes of the time the light goes out. — 
Editor.] I have come to the conclusion that he thought 
it was good enough for him and that he would fall heir 
to it. 

You must feel, as I do, that these letters are very un- 
missionary. They will probably help you to realize, as I 
do, that a man, by the mere fact of going to a mission 
field, is not in the least metamorphosed. He is still just 
an ordinary man, with the same necessity of sleeping, eat- 
ing, and exercising upon him, however much he might like 
to dispense with all three. And he does n't get away from 
human weaknesses in others or in himself at all. If he 
was weak at home, he is weak here; if he found people at 
home hard to get along with, here they are the same. He 
has no special immunities; only some special privileges, 
and, with them, some special temptations. 

So far, and for a long time, it will hold true, I am not 
a missionary. I have done and can do no such work ; I am 
not hand to hand with heathenism. I only see it as a vast, 
distant bulk. When I know it, and as I know it, I can 
write about it. Till then I have not much to say about it. 


Rev. Mr. Hwang and Family, Nganking. 

Cateekists and Women Workers, Hankow. 


Ingleside, June 18, 1892. 
My dear Father : 

It is pleasantly cool to-day, though very damp, so I have 
put on one or two extra garments. For some days my uni- 
form has consisted of three pieces of clothing (not in- 
cluding shoes and socks) — a pair of trousers and a coat of 
white duck or silk, and a gauze undershirt — and it is quite 

Things are perfectly quiet here, and we have three or 
four gunboats in port. In Ichang the people are insolent, 
and further down the river there have been threatenings, 
but precautions have been taken. In other parts of China 
buildings have been destroyed and missionaries attacked, 
but we have no reason to fear. 

Last week I wrote a letter to Mr. Foster, telling him 
that I did not think it my duty to question the consul's 
pronouncement that the acting Church Committee was 
valid, and said that until it was reversed I expected to 
continue to hold services for them. He acknowledged my 
letter, recognized the propriety of my position, and said 
that if he took steps against the committee, I must not 
think he was opposing me. So things are smooth, and I 
think I have lost nothing. I am still on good terms all 

Ingleside, June 25, 1892. 

How I would enjoy being in a party of young folks — 
fellows I knew well and girls that are girls and not merely 
half -fledged dames! Mr. Pott leaves for America on the 
twenty-ninth of July. I am sure Papa and the entire con- 
gregation will like him. He is every inch a man, and an 
exceedingly able one. I expect to see him before he goes, 
and talk over my plans with him. He recently wrote me a 
very kind letter, offering to help me in any way he could. 

It will be quite a relief to get rid of my Sunday sermons 
for a while. I enjoy them and they help me, but they give 

[121 3 


me a good deal of worry. However, I can't help believing 
that, apart from the possibility of doing good, they are 
training me for something that I do not yet see. So I hold 
on, though I often feel discouraged after preaching. I am 
sure that preaching to the heathen can be no more dis- 
couraging. There are encouraging listeners, but, espe- 
cially on a warm day, many who annoy me. 

Everybody continues very kind, and I enjoy myself and 
keep warm. (I did not mean to say that. I meant to 
write "well/' But it is true, so I leave it.) The American 
consul tells me that he may have to call on me, as one of 
the three American citizens here, to sit with him in the 
hearing of a libel case against an American. But he will 
let me off, if possible, and I sincerely hope it may be. 

Lots of love from yours, 

J. A. I. 

Ingleside, June 27, 1892. 

I suppose you will think it very extravagant when I tell 
you that I have for several days been spending thirteen 
dollars each day for something I do not want — something 
that is neither food, clothes, housekeeping, nor amusement. 
I ought to modify this a little and tell you that the mis- 
sion ultimately pays the bill, for it is a doctor's bill. Now, 
hush, every one of you! Don't say a word, but let me 
finish. I know you will be wanting to cable and to come. 
But let me remind you that unless you have already, before 
this letter reaches you, received a cablegram to the con- 
trary effect, you may satisfy yourselves that as your eyes 
read these lines, the occurrence is already in my dim past, 
probably forgotten. 

I get along fairly well and have nothing to complain of. 
I have had a good deal of time to think about you all, and 
to congratulate myself that you have had no opportunity 
to worry yourselves about my sickness, until this letter, 
written by myself, assures that I am much better and 
stronger, considered in no danger, and likely to be about in 



a few days. And, "an yon love me/' don't do or write any- 
thing rash. 

I '11 stop now, as I want to write a little letter to Char- 
lotte. One of my most earnest wishes for the last few 
days has been that I might be able to-day to relieve yon 
of needfnl anxiety. Of conrse I cannot rid yon of the 
Addison proclivities to worry, bnt I think I have said 
enough to make it nnreasonable to do so. Still, I shall 
be surprised if a couple of the females don't faint and the 
others start to walk to China. 

My next letter may be from Shanghai. 

The doctor ordered a trip to Japan, and not to return to 
Hankow until all signs of fever disappeared. This order 
Ingle complied with, though he felt so much better by the 
time he reached Shanghai that he writes : "I dislike to go, 
much as I shall enjoy it, and I feel ashamed of going, for 
really I am myself again and feel no inconvenience from 
my little attack, which was checked by prompt treatment." 

He was away about six weeks, thoroughly enjoying 
Japan and friends he saw there, and returning to Hankow 
in good condition. He writes, under date of September 5, 
1892, from Hankow : 

My dear Father : 

Home again! And you don't know how glad I am to 
be here. I managed to get myself on board a river- 
steamer before midnight on Thursday, August 25, and 
soon afterward we set off on our voyage of six hundred 
miles. This boat belongs to a Chinese company, and is 
patronized by Chinese more than the others. I had two 
Chinese companions at the saloon table — one a steamboat 
manager at Wuhu, the other the son of the treasurer of 
Sze Chuan Province, 'way up the river. The former 
showed his good feeling by little acts of courtesy and by 
ordering champagne for the captain and the other two 
passengers, one day at dinner. He had some little ways that 


do not ordinarily obtain at gentlemen's tables, but I -pass 
over these. [It should be remembered, however, that many 
of our accepted social customs — dancing, for instance — are 
abhorrent to the Chinese. — Editor.] His companion, 
however, astonished me by his behavior at dinner. The 
dish that was handed him contained six nicely browned 
little sausages, resting softly on a bed of mashed potatoes. 
The other guests had each taken one. When they reached 
him he took one, tasted it, and seemed to like it, so he har- 
pooned the remaining five on his plate and set to work. 
They were a little too much for him, so he sent the debris to 
his cabin. When curry came, he piled the rice up on his 
plate, put his head down till his lips touched it, and sent his 
ice-cream and a bunch of four or five bananas (I think he 
emptied the dish) to his cabin, and I afterward saw him, 
walking about the cabin, eating his ice-cream. He soon 
afterward left us, and I suppose took his booty with him. 

We had beautiful weather and a pleasant trip. One dis- 
agreeable feature of the ride was the pervading smell of 
opium in the saloon, which belongs to Chinese second-class 
passengers. Some of them — the men there or in the steer- 
age — seemed to be constantly smoking it, and the smell is 
very nauseating, though I am somewhat used to it now. 
The captain said that a few years ago the company prohib- 
ited it, and when a man was caught smoking his pipe he 
was thrown overboard. Now the habit has spread so 
widely that it is impossible to cope with it, and they do not 
try to stop it. 

I am perfectly well and strong. Have had extremely 
kind greetings from the men here, young and old, and feel 
much drawn to them, foreigners as well as Chinese. I am 
delighted to find that I have not forgotten much Chinese. 
I think I both speak and understand better than before, 
though I have lost a good many words. I feel encouraged 
in every way. Everything looks bright. The weather is 
cooler and the nights are delightful. 

Lots of love to all. 

C124 3 


Hankow, September 12, 1892. 
I expect soon to begin lessons in the Chinese Bible with 
the choir-boys. I am not yet able to do much, but hope to 
be soon able to start them in Bible studies. Mr. Locke 
looks forward to their being evangelists, and proposes 
training them with a view to that, and afterward choosing 
those that seem fitted for the work. They will thus, you 
see, have the advantage of continuous training under our 
own eyes, and we can hope to see more signs of spiritual 
life and growth in them than in the average convert. For 
the growth in grace is slow enough and hard enough at 
home, and what must it be here, where everything is 
against it! I can give you no idea of the problems that 
have to be met in this work. We must try to organize the 
converts in some way so as to keep them together, to make 
the service attractive to them — for they are mere children 
in everything but years — to give them opportunities of 
intercourse with one another, and make these occasions 
pleasant ; and in and through it all, what is hardest of all, 
to cherish and feed their spiritual life and make them 
hunger and thirst after righteousness. It takes time, espe- 
cially the last. There is no man living, of however won- 
derful ability, who would not have full scope for it in 
facing the difficulties that meet us on every side. The 
mere bringing into the church of the heathen is only the 
first step, though one at which many fail. After that they 
must not only be trained in spiritual things, but taught to 
be independent and self-supporting, and supplied with 
pastors. And everything must be carefully watched over 
by foreigners. One of our greatest needs now is women 
from home. Our women's work needs to be organized and 
pushed forward, and there is almost no limit. At present 
comparatively little has been done. We are in dreadful 
need of several women trained in women's work. Whether 
the Board would send them out if they offered, I don't 
know. But our need remains the same. And this branch 

s \ D25 3 


of work is of the highest importance, and one that we now 
cannot touch. We want the best and brightest for this 
work. No second-rate material will do. I know of a 
couple of Frederick ladies who, I think, would fit the posi- 
tion. Humanly speaking, our future, with reference to 
money and workers, depends largely on the bishop they 
give us. How we pray he may be both able and conse- 
crated ! So much is dependent upon him. 

I suppose Saturday will bring me a large influx of "fever 
letters," answers to mine of the early part of July. Now, 
?f you did vent your anxiety in your reply, don't you feel 
foolish, now that you have had so many letters saying I am 
all right ? I have a large chest read}*- for the directions for 
my treatment which I expect to receive, and will utilize 
the next room to store medicines which I shall probably 
receive from Kitten by a special State Department pouch. 
I did my best to relieve your anxiety, but have no idea that 
I succeeded. 

Ingleside, Hankow, October 3, 1892. 

Nothing exciting has happened this week near us. In 
Hunan, the fiery province south of us, the people have de- 
cided to refuse their governor because he is considered 
friendly to foreigners. What will come of it, I don't 
know. Eebellion, probably. But there are almost always 
a few rebellions going on in various parts of this huge 
country. There is one now in the north, which sprang 
out of the harsh tyranny of a mandarin and the natural 
resistance that followed. 

The floods are also abroad in the north. The great 
Yellow Eiver — "China's sorrow" — has burst its banks, as 
it so often does, and has spread ruin. I believe the loss of 
life from the water is not so great as is likely to result from 
famine in consequence of ruined crops. 

The cholera has also made dreadful ravages in the 
north, thirty or forty thousand having died in one prov- 
ince. A native paper says it is very bad in Hankow, but 



we had not known it. Mr. Locke says he has gone through 
the streets when the dead were l) T ing nnburied around him, 
and Mr. Sowerby says that this summer men were falling 
dead in the streets of Ichang; but it rarely attacks for- 
eigners, because they are cleaner in habits and surround- 
ings, and live on better food. 

My classes are learning English pretty well, and natu- 
rally want me to talk it to them. And when I ask them 
for a word or phrase, from ten boys I get four or five re- 
sponses. I feel much cast down at the thought of having 
the responsibility of this work, though I am becoming 
acquainted with its method. Perhaps you have never 
thought what our church expects its missionaries to be. 
I say "ours" because in most other missions there are more 
men and the work is divided. Let me tell you what Mr. 
Locke has had to do and be. First : Something of a real- 
estate dealer. There is land to be bought and sometimes 
sold, improved, and looked after. Second : An accountant. 
The mission's accounts are kept by him. Third : An archi- 
tect and builder. The Chinese will not build decently unless 
watched, and this is a very trying business. Fourth : A phy- 
sician and hospital nurse. We were given a hospital, but 
no doctor. The concession doctor was employed to visit once 
or twice a week, and Mr. Locke had charge meanwhile and 
conducted the dispensary. Fifth: A preacher. He is 
expected to find time for this. Sixth: An organizer and 
administrator. He is working on perfectly raw material, 
and if it is to retain the impression made on it, he must 
have the gift of administration. Seventh : A bishop in all 
but the name and the power of "laying on hands." Apart 
from that, a bishop could scarcely have more authority and 
responsibility than a man in Mr. Locke's position has. 
When you add to these the trying climate, social loneliness, 
and anxiety about his hostile surroundings, do you wonder 
that he is not as strong a man at forty as he would be in 
America at fifty or sixty? I do not. I trust that, if I 
have charge here, I may at once have a business manager 

Cm ] 


to take the mere routine and clerical labor from my hands, 
and soon another clergyman. I cannot pretend to do all 
that Mr. Locke will leave to be carried on. The work has 
opened so many departments that it is overpowering. 

Your birthday will have passed before this reaches you. 
But I will think of you and make for you all loving prayers 
and wishes. I can't help thinking, now and then, how nice 
it would be to have a little visit home. 

Hankow, October 17, 1892. 
My dear Father : 

I thought for some time that he (Mr. Locke) was rather 
negligent of the people after they entered the church, and 
had not sufficient oversight of them. Last night I had my 
usual Sunday evening talk with him, and found I was 
mistaken. He has men whose duty it is to keep a constant 
watch on every person who is baptized and visit him every 
one or two weeks. He is anxious to organize a class for 
the instruction of the Christians, but with the lack of men 
and the work he has to do, it is at present impossible. The 
former difficulty of persuading men to enter the church 
seems to be well met by the means he employs, but an 
equally great and equally serious difficulty is to keep them 
in the church and build them up in the faith. This is, I 
think, his special study now, and he is making experiments 
now and then in this direction. As I have said before, he 
has great faith in the church service as an educator, and 
puts himself to great inconvenience to be present at daily 
morning and evening prayer, so as to sustain the attend- 
ance. He aims to make the church building pretty, and 
the service bright and attractive, so that the people may 
take pride and pleasure in their church. You cannot real- 
ize, at your distance, how many motives must be played on 
to get a response from these people. 

Our Chinese deacons are excellent fellows, but they have 
not much development; they have had little Christian 

£128 3 


experience and are in great need of more thorough, deeper, 
and fresher instruction. They seem to run out in their 
preaching and to descend to commonplace platitudes. It 
is no wonder. I feel more and more the need in myself of 
deep-rooted and living convictions, and of a more thorough 
acquaintance with, and apprehension of, spiritual realities. 
I have hopes that if I can keep the present choir-boys 
under my care, I may teach them enough English to enable 
them to profit by the good literature in our language. I 
have not begun the study of the Chinese Bible with them. 
I do not feel equal to it. 

I am rather blue about my Chinese now. I am making 
good progress in reading, but little in speaking. I have an 
idea that Mr. Locke is somewhat disappointed in me, 
though he has never told me so. It was by his advice, and 
rather against my will, that I embarked in this English 
Church work; but though it has somewhat retarded my 
Chinese, I believe it has repaid me in other respects. I 
can feel that I have grown spiritually since I have had the 
spiritual oversight of these people and have had to think 
for them. I have improved physically, for it has given 
me opportunity for exercise and amusement that I prob- 
ably would not have had. And I can see that I have the 
good will and respect of most of the men here, even of 
some of the hardened old sinners whom the other mis- 
sionaries denounce. I constantly receive little kindnesses 
at their hands. I was gratified about a week ago to find 
two men, one a steamer captain, who remembered what I 
had said in my service and wanted to talk about it. 

About a month ago I begged the people not to neglect 
the Lord's Supper, and read the solemn warning to that 
effect in the Prayer-book. You may imagine my joy in 
having nine come yesterday — more than ever before, except 
Easter day. I feel the pleasure of the man who sees before 
him a work which, by God's help, he believes he can do. 
The soil is not bad if the crop of weeds can be killed. 
These weeds are the natural result of neglect. 

" JHan goetl) fottl) unto Ins tooru antt to M«s labor until 
t\)t etoenina;♦ ,, 

"© Loro, support us all tljefcap long, until t&e sfjaontos 
lengthen, anU t&e eoening; comes, . . . anU our tooru is 



On the resignation and departure of Mr. Locke for Amer- 
ica in November, 1892, Ingle was simply left in charge of 
the work in Hankow, "and no questions asked." The 
raison d'etre of this frequent eventuality in mission work 
is beautifully expressed in Carroll's classic lines : 

"You could not see a cloud, because 
No cloud was in the sky ; 
No birds were flying overhead — 
There were no birds to fly." 

Ingle was far too young and far too inexperienced for a 
post of such responsibility. That goes without saying. 
But he made good, and that with fewer errors than many 
of us who have, almost without exception, found ourselves 
at one time or another in a similarly difficult and perilous 
position in the missionary service of the Church. 

This was the real beginning of Ingle's day's work, which 
lasted eleven years and one month. 



To Rev. W. S. Langford, D.D. 

Hankow, China, November 9, 1892. 
Mr. Locke left Hankow on Saturday, November 5. He 
put me in charge, awaiting the confirmation of the Stand- 
ing Committee. Mr. Sowerby is here and is assisting in 
the work, which is going on as before. 

Hankow, November 7, 1892. 
My dearest Father : 

What do you think of my being in charge of the work ? 
But that is just the case. Let me try to give you an idea 
of what I have to do. Every morning at nine, prayers. I 
read two short prayers in the choir-room and go into the 
chancel with the boys and men. I expect to read part of 
morning prayer in a few days. From 9.30 to 11.30 I study 
and read with my new teacher, a very nice scholar, who is 
preparing for baptism. About 11.39 I go down to the 
guest-room, where the deacon and evangelists are preach- 
ing, and say a few words myself, which I have prepared 
with the help of my teacher. So you see I am beginning 
to preach, though in very poor fashion, after seven and a 
half months' study. Of course I speak simply and slowly, 
and the listeners generally say they understand me, and I 
think they really get some of it. At one I have tiffin. 
Somewhere between two and three I go out for one and a 
half or two hours of golf, which refreshes me very much. 
I come back to five-o'clock prayers. I have supper at seven, 
and at 7.30 or eight I have a meeting. On Monday and 
Wednesday it is an instruction class for candidates for 
baptism. Mr. Sowerby and the Chinese do the work here. 
Tuesday and Thursday evenings I have night-school, and 
Tuesday and Thursday afternoons give my choir-boys an 
hour of English. Friday evenings at seven we have short 
evening prayer, followed by the social meeting of which I 
have often spoken. Sunday at 10.30 we have the commu- 



nion service. Mr. Sowerby took it yesterday, and I 
preached in the English church. The committee asked 
me not to desert them, now that the congregation is begin- 
ning to grow, so I think Mr. Sowerby and I can manage 
to serve them till Mr. Partridge comes to help us. 

Then I have the accounts of the mission to manage. 
There are probably forty employees of all kinds, including 
deacons, evangelists, teachers, etc. But this is so organized 
that each deacon has charge not only of his immediate 
helpers and employees, but is overseer of a couple of evan- 
gelists and regular visitor to several schools. He brings 
an itemized list of expenses, and I pay him by check. Mr. 
Locke says these deacons are trustworthy, and in fact 
everything, humanly speaking, depends on them, and I 
could not hope to do anything without them. As it is, I 
realize the greatness of the work, but I do not feel despair- 
ingly. I believe the work rests on true foundations. I ac- 
cept it as a tremendous and unsought responsibility, and I 
believe God will help me to carry it on. I greatly hope, 
too, that Mr. Locke will be back before many months. 

Of course I am greatly hampered not only by imperfect 
speaking and understanding, but by having to spend a 
certain amount of time in studying the language. I fear 
this cuts off all chance of my becoming a scholar in Chi- 
nese, as I had once hoped. It will greatly hinder my reading 
and study of English, but I think it will contribute to my 
spiritual growth. I am quite ten years older than I was 
last month. 

Hankow, November 27, 1892. 
My darling Father : 

I am still plodding on with my work. I have visited the 
deacons in Hankow, and think they are doing good and 
faithful work. I have recently heard some charges against 
some of our evangelists about sixty miles away from here. 
The reports come through a Wesleyan minister, who heard 
them from his Chinese. So far as I have been able to in- 



vestigate, they seem to be great exaggerations, and the true 
blame to belong to one of our men who was recalled 
from the place two months ago, when our present men 
were sent there. He seems to have been quarrelsome, but 
I have heard of nothing worse about him. These things, 
as you may imagine, are very annoying. At the very last, 
in investigating them, one has to fall back on the state- 
ments of the Chinese, and then the balance must be struck 
between the reliability of one's men and that of the ac- 
cusers. As a general thing, each missionary believes his 
own men, so these fusses generally end in a draw. 

I judge that our course of instruction is much more 
regular and thorough than theirs. 1 Surely, no one could 
want a better basis of instruction than the Creed, Lord's 
Prayer, and Commandments, which are regularly and 
carefully taught to all our people. Our system aims at 
teaching a great deal, in a comparatively short time, by 
regular meetings held for the purpose. They seem to leave 
the man to learn from the regular preaching to the heathen 
(in the street chapels, where many points of doctrine can- 
not be brought out, "casting pearls before swine"), from 
attendance on public services, and reading. I think our 
system is likely to achieve better results in the matter of 
preliminary training. But they are far ahead of us in 
teaching and overseeing the members after they are bap- 
tized. They have plenty of foreigners, and attend to that 
part of the work well. This is where we are weak, as we 
are always in need of foreigners. Then, too, they have no 
native clergymen. Their policy is congregational, they 
ordain a man only when a congregation is ready to support 
him. I think our system is much better for laying the 
foundation, and capable of wider expansion, and that with 
one or two more foreigners we could do more than they are 
doing with quite a staff. Our system, too, is much cheaper, 
as you can support ten or more Chinese at the cost of one 

1 Other Protestant bodies. 

C133 3 


Well, this is a tremendous work, and awfully tiring 
sometimes; and if I had n't believed it was God's work, 
and He would carry it on, I would have been at home 
before now. But I trust His promise and do my best. 


Hankow, January 1, 1893. 

I have much — very much — to be thankful for. Alto- 
gether, my position here becomes more and more pleasant. 
I think the missionaries are beginning to regard me with 
a more friendly eye, though I have heard of some of the 
unpleasant misstatements about my work, and I think 
some one is trying to injure my English work by giving the 
impression that I am a "very High Churchman." I think 
the verdict of most of my congregation would be that I am 
too far in the other direction. 

But there has been another side to my festive season 
that has not been gay. I have had one anxiety and worry 
after another, and, in fact, it seems to me that I have a 
fresh one every two or three days. Some of them are 
serious, some trivial, all annoying. On the top of those of 
other kinds, I now have a choir-boy quite sick. I don't 
know just what is the matter with him, but I fear he is 
rather sick. Dr. Thomson was very kind about visiting 
him, and for nearly a day he remained in the school, 
where I could look after him or the doctor visit him. But 
his stupid old mother insisted on taking him to her 
wretched home, and I had to yield. I told her that I 
would nurse him if he would remain in the school, but 
could not be responsible if she removed him. But nothing 
prevailed, and he went home to fall into the clutches of 
some Chinese quack, who is as likely to feed him on tiger- 
bones as anything else. [Tiger's bones are considered a 
strength-giver by the old Chinese practice. "Tigers are so 
strong." — Editor.] I send him soup twice a day, and 


the teacher visits him regularly. Unless he soon improves, 
I shall try to prevail on the mother to let me move him to 
the Eoman Catholic hospital, where he can be suitably 

You can have no conception of, and I cannot describe, 
all the worries that constantly come to me. Sometimes I 
really feel as if I must give up, that I cannot grapple with 
these difficulties. No one who has not tried it can have the 
least imagination of the difficulties of this work and the 
liability to mistakes on every hand. If this were a mere 
business venture, no amount of money could make me 
undertake it, for the strain is of a kind that money cannot 
compensate for. And yet I believe in the work, and think 
that in time it will succeed. But we must have men and 
women, and that soon. 

To the Board of Missions of the Protestant Episcopal 
Church, 21-26 Bible House, New York City 

Hankow, China, January 22, 1893. 

The Board knows that, on Mr. Locke's departure for 
America, I was left by him in charge of the Hankow work, 
and the Standing Committee confirmed this action. Mr. 
Sowerby has rendered valuable assistance, but his presence 
here is temporary, and all the responsibility has fallen on 
me. With my short residence here, I could not have kept 
the work going, had it not been systematized by Mr. Locke 
and put under the constant personal oversight of three 
very faithful deacons. As it is, things are going on almost 
as before, and, while I expect a temporary check, I do not 
think that ground will be lost. 

Now, apart from the fact that there is work to be done 
among our English-speaking citizens which the ministers 
of other churches cannot do, it is to be remembered that 
these people are in the jurisdiction assigned to our Church, 
and consider themselves under our bishop (when we have 
one). So they naturally look to us for assistance. Not 



long before his death, Bishop Boone agreed to get a man 
to conduct these services, if the committee would guarantee 
half of his salary. The bishop's death prevented the per- 
fecting of the arrangement. 

Mr. E. H. Oxley, the manager of the Hankow branch of 
the Hong Kong and Shanghai Bank, and the representa- 
tive of the Church Committee, has lately renewed this 

As to the need of more than one man in Hankow, there 
can be no doubt. The work is spreading in a way that 
demands more workers, unless what has been gained is to 
be lost through lack of oversight. I am not asking for 
women, though the work needs them sadly; nor for a 
physician, though some of our Christians must be sent to 
the Eoman Catholic hospital when they are sick. I am 
asking for a clergyman to assist in direct ministerial work. 
His English work will not take much time, and will be of 
great spiritual benefit to him, especially while he is in the 
discouraging stage of beginning this language. 

It is not easy for people in America to appreciate the 
position of your representative in Hankow. While the 
Wesleyans have a score or more, the London Mission more 
than a dozen, and Swedes and Norwegians galore, we have 
three missionaries in Wuchang and Hankow, and in this 
city, with prospects and opportunities second to none, a 
single man, and he a newcomer. For Christ and His 
Church's sake, send us a man, that the work that promises 
so well be not allowed to fall to pieces. How can we be 
successful and the work be well done when one man is left 
to do work which it would take two or three men to do 
properly ! 

St. John's College, February 8, 1893. 

Coming to Shanghai after being for nearly a year and a 

half in Hankow is like coming as a countryman to the city. 

The big shops, the carriages, and all the fine houses seem 

strange, but very attractive. Just now the Chinese New 



Year holidays are in full blast, and the streets are full of 
men and women dressed in silks and furs of all colors. It 
is a great treat to see it all, but I am glad I live in a quieter 
place. I shall be glad to get back to my home, though I 
shall be sorry to leave the Massies. 

P.S. — I expect to engage passage for Vancouver by the 
Empress of Japan, which leaves Shanghai May 26 and 
ought to reach Vancouver about June 17 or 18. I shall 
cross the continent by the Canadian Pacific Railroad, and 
hope to be at home about the twenty-fifth of June. 1 

Hankow, March 6, 1893. 
My darling Oscar: 

Contrary to custom, one or two little things have hap- 
pened since I last wrote, and I will try to tell them. First : 
It seems that at last we have a bishop — Mr. Graves. I 
was over there Saturday when Mr. Partridge got a tele- 
gram, in answer to one he had sent, saying that Mr. 
Graves was elected. We had some trouble then because Mr„ 
Graves had not been notified. 

The other piece of news is not so pleasant. Some of our 
church members are having a rather hard time. As far as 
I can learn, the facts are these. One of our people who, 
like all living or dead Chinese, owes money, was staying 
in the house of another Christian when a crowd of neigh- 
bors, including his creditors, came, and after cursing them 
pretty vigorously, broke windows, dishes, and furniture, 
beat the occupants of the house, and said that after three 
days they would drive all the church members out of that 
vicinity. As we have eight families there, who do not rent 
but own the houses they live in, this would be a serious 
matter to them. Two of the deacons, who happened to 
witness most of this, came to me and reported it, and the 
next day I heard that a woman, who had been very prom- 

1 At this time "he was expecting to return to America in 1893 
to be married.— Editor. 


inent in the attack, had since then scratched her face till it 
bled and then gone to the mandarin with the charge that 
it was done by these Christians. There are two very Chi- 
nese features about this: First, the false charge, and, 
secondly, that it was done by a woman. I have told you 
what fearful pests the women are, and how hard to get rid 
of. This woman was put forward by her husband, as an 
attack on and maltreatment of her was a more serious 
matter than attacking a man. Now another feature of 
Chinese life, ever present. To get her petition presented 
to the mandarin she had to pay the underlings, always 
notorious scoundrels, four thousand cash (about four dol- 
lars) . I was afterward told that after she had paid them, 
they demanded more, and when she would not give it, 
refused to present the petition. But hearing of her charge, 
I went to the United States consulate and had a letter 
written to the mandarin, asking him to see that justice was 
done. Perhaps you do not know that the treaties with the 
foreign nations promise that Chinese shall "not be subject 
to ill treatment because they are Christians," and this 
seems to come under that head. Since then I have heard 
nothing about the trouble, and hope there will be no more 
of it. 

March 12, 1893. 
My dear Father: 

Although Mr. Graves's election to the bishopric has yet 
to be confirmed by the Standing Committee, it is regarded 
by all as practically settled, and he is making arrangements 
for the management of the diocese. He says he is pleased 
with what he has seen of my efforts, and will leave me just 
as I am. He apparently does not intend to interfere in my 
work. He does not intend to take this church as his, but 
leaves it to the work that is now going on in it. I think 
every one in the mission will have fair treatment from him, 
and that he will spur us all up to better efforts. It is a 
great relief to feel that there is some one now to whom I 



can refer my troubles and doubts, with the prospect of 
getting help. You cannot imagine how wretched the 
former state was, when there was absolutely no one to 
counsel or help. I look forward to a great improvement 
and extension of the mission under him. 

I am trying to get my teacher to bring his family over 
from Wuchang to live on this side. In this way he will 
be always conveniently near, and, besides that, can come 
regularly to service. He does not seem to be much pleased 
with the Wuchang church because the men are so few. 
Over here the balance is on the other side. So I offered 
him a place in the house we rent, and he seemed pleased at 
the prospect. But just now, at all events, it is impossible 
for him to move. And this is the reason. A Chinese is not 
an individual. He is a member of a family. The sons are 
always expected to live together and with their parents. 
They hang around each other's necks and prove a fearful 
incubus to a man's efforts to rise. The successful man is at 
once seized by his needy relations and reminded that he 
belongs to them. In this case my teacher, together with 
his two brothers, owns a house. The brothers keep an inn, 
and the presence of my teacher's family is of assistance to 
them. The season has not been very good, and business is 
dull, so it would be to the disadvantage of the two brothers 
if the third moved away. No matter what the prospect of 
benefiting himself may be, he is bound by the common 
weal and he does not dare to leave. Like everything else 
Chinese, their relationships are very complicated, and, I 
think, fearful impositions. 

April 30, 1893. 
My dear Father : 

I have had a good many annoyances during the week. 
My two men are still in jail (the result of the incidents 
told in the letter of March 6), though the consul is trying 
hard to get them out. To-morrow is the first of May. I 
had hoped to have this affair settled before the putting into 



effect of the Geary Law, and I am sure that will not help 
me. Our consuls in China are of little use. By our par- 
tisan system of politics, a consul does not stay long enough 
to make it worth while to learn the language, and he has 
little opportunity to know much about the people. So he 
is entirely dependent on underlings and Chinese for all his 
information, and he has not one chance out of a thousand 
to escape if they, for reasons of their own, unite to deceive 
him. In the English system they have a regular graded 
course, by which men rise from one position to another as 
they are qualified to do more difficult work. But ours is no 
system at all, and is little fitted to care for the country's 

In my last letter I spoke of the man who complained 
that a Roman Catholic priest had encroached on his land 
in building. I am glad to say this matter is settled. I 
advised the man to send his friends to discuss the matter 
with the priest and try to sell him the land at a fair price, 
and suggested one hundred strings of cash. This was 
carried out, apparently to the satisfaction of every one, 
especially the five middlemen, who received eight hundred 
cash apiece for their manipulation of the business. 

The latest thing of this sort occurred on Friday. One 
of my workers came to ask me for leave of absence to at- 
tend to business. It seems that when he was a boy his 
grandmother borrowed forty strings of cash. This has 
never been paid, and the young man, who is the only mem- 
ber of the family who is earning money, has been per- 
secuted for payment. I think I have told you before that 
in China a man is not an individual but a member of a 
family. This is an illustration of it, and shows how a man 
(or an old woman) may mortgage generations yet unborn. 
The hard part of this is that my man had previously lent 
just this sum to another man, stipulating to be repaid in 
large cash. When the time for payment came, the debtor 
sent forty strings of small cash, which are counterfeits and 
useless. These were returned, and the man refused to pay 



proper money. My man has hopes now of getting this 
sum, or at any rate, by the prospect of it, of putting off his 
grandmother's creditor. Is n't this a glorious land ? 

May 7, 1893. 

My two poor men are still in jail and suffering. Both 
are more or less sick. But I am utterly powerless to help 

I am not baptizing as many as Mr. Locke would have 
baptized if he had stayed. This is for two reasons : First, 
because I am stricter in my requirements and am trying to 
make the deacons and evangelists so. Secondly, because I 
do not think we have at present facilities for taking the 
needful care of more persons. So I have given orders to 
the families of the church members, the wives, parents, 
children, etc., who have not yet been baptized. I have 
many plans as to the work I myself will do as soon as I am 
better equipped. There is enough work fully to occupy 
several men, and I am constantly brought back to the 
realization that I am but one, and a very poorly prepared 
one at that. 

I see before me the program of an entertainment which 
I attended on Thursday night aboard the Porpoise, the 
British gunboat. This was a farewell to Hankow, and 
most of the ladies and gentlemen of the place were there. 
The deck of the ship was roofed in with flags and pennants 
and bright with electric lights and colored lanterns. Mr. 
Partridge and I were the only missionaries present, though 
a number of others were invited. I think the words "Pri- 
vate Theatricals" on the invitations scared our good friends 
away. But both the officers and men seemed gratified by 
our presence. 

Hankow, June 5, 1893. 
Last Saturday I decided to take a holiday. So I went 
with Mr. Sowerby over the river about seven o'clock, and 
spent the morning. The Pagoda is on quite a high hill in 



a large inclosure, in which stand a number of temples, or 
rather a series, with idols and other appurtenances. They 
were making a large plaster image of Buddha, perhaps 
twenty feet high, which is to be gilded. But this zeal 
seems rather exceptional, and most of the temples are dirty 
and old-looking and in great need of repairs. 

We found the priests very pleasant and chatty. They 
seemed to recognize Mr. Partridge and Dr. Merrins. In 
fact, one of them had attended service in Wuchang, and 
he showed us about and explained things to us. 

We climbed to the top of the Pagoda by a tortuous stone 
stairway which has outlets on all seven stories. The top 
is probably one hundred feet above the foundation, and it 
is placed on a high hill, so the view is very good. A priest, 
who had followed us up the hill, brought tea, which he 
poured for us in the resting-room at the foot of the Pagoda. 
We afterward learned that we had acquired no merit from 
our climb, because we had failed to record ourselves on the 
walls of the tower. 

Hankow, June 12, 1893. 
My dear Father : 

Monday again, and, I am thankful to say, a bright day. 
For about three weeks we have had rain almost every day. 
The result has been very trying, for I have been kept in 
the house most of the time, and that means that I have not 
felt very well and have been in a bad humor too often. 
But I find that a little free expression of dissatisfaction, 
such as often accompanies this state of mind, has a good 
effect on the Chinese. I fear I am not strict enough with 
them, and they are the first to note such a defect and take 
advantage of it. I believe that the great mass of them will 
never feel any great respect for a man who is not some- 
times stern with them. They need to "stand in awe" if 
they are not to do wrong, and, knowing as little as they do 
about God, they are not likely to fear Him much if they 
have n't some of the same feeling of fear for their pastor 



Of course they are open to kinder influences, but I don't 
think they are yet ready to be controlled by them. 

Mrs. Graves expects to leave for Japan in a week, and 
then I shall be quite alone. She expects Mr. Graves to 
return early in September, perhaps even earlier, as he 
thinks he can do nothing at home during the summer, 
when ministers and people are away. I wish you could 
meet him, but I fear you will not be able. I have already 
found him a congenial friend, and think I shall like him 
equally as a bishop. 

June 26, 1893. 
The holidays are over and I am again at work, but I feel 
rested and well. I did not, of course, do half the work I 
undertook to do, but I accomplished several things. I have 
come to the conclusion that the best time for doing extra 
work is when you are already tolerably busy, and not when 
you have little or nothing at hand. At least this is my 

To the Rev. Joshua Kimber 

Hankow, China, July 6, 1893. 

You will notice that the number of baptisms is smaller 
than last year. That was to be expected from the change 
made in the missionary. There is, however, an additional 
reason for it. 

The other work has not slackened, and we have daily 
preaching to the heathen in guest-rooms in seven places. 
But I have made the rules a little more stringent. The 
instruction covers more ground than formerly, it is ex- 
tended over a longer time, and before a man is baptized his 
character and antecedents are inquired into as fully as 
possible. In this way the class is delayed a little and the 
number is smaller, but we have a steady and by no means 
small stream, and I think time will show the wisdom of it. 
This work has reached a stage of growth where it will 

[143 3 


continue to grow even under some restrictions. And, as T 
said, my inexperience is afraid of too large additions to 
this large number. As it is, about one hundred and sev- 
enty-five have been added in the past eight months. 

Most of this work has been accomplished by the deacons, 
or by the evangelists working in immediate connection 
with the deacons. Much less has been done by the evangel- 
ists alone. I am very fortunate in my deacons. 

July 10, 1893. 
Dear Eia: 

I am a mixture of pleasant and ugly feelings to-day. 
But I have one thing to congratulate myself on: I have 
developed skill in organ-repairing. The church organ (par- 
lor size) had become quite useless; the keys stuck, and it 
was apparently hopeless. Saturday I took it to pieces and 
resolved it into its formal elements. Then when I put it 
together, it was worse than before. But this morning I 
made a deeper study of it, and now it is, to all appearances, 
as good as it ever was, and my organist is quite enthusias- 
tic over it. So, as far as that goes, I am in a good humor. 
Two of my choir-boys are sick, but not seriously, I think. 

I have feared lately that you would be anxious about 
me, after hearing of the murder of two Swedish mission- 
aries near here. But there is not the least danger here, for 
we are well defended, and this was a local affair and not a 
general uprising. The poor fellows were buried yesterday, 
and almost everybody was present. It remains to be seen 
what punishment will be awarded. 

The weather is quite hot, though mild for the season. It 
is a little hard to sleep with more under one than a cane 
chair. I intend to follow the Chinese custom of sleeping 
on a mat placed on a bedstead. I am very well — in fact, 
better than when the weather was cooler, though of course 
the heat is very annoying. If I can ever become used to 
this living in two places at once, I shall get on very well. 



Hankow, August 13, 1893. 
My dear Father : 

In China a fan is one of the necessities of life, and no 
coolie is without one. 

I have recently been asked to take charge of the Sep- 
tember meeting of missionaries, in place of an old mis- 
sionary who is away. I have written quite a long address 
on St. Paul's two public sermons to the heathen in Lystra 
and Athens. It is a very interesting subject, and the 
trouble is not to say too much. I shall probably raise some 
opposition byi my views as to St. Paul's concessions to 
heathen knowledge in the case of the altar to an "unknown 
god" and the heathen poets' statement that we are children 
of Zeus. But I think my views can be sustained from the 
Bible. It is surprising how many occurrences here are 
quite parallel with others mentioned in the Bible. Per- 
haps you do not know that the Emperor, and, I think, 
he alone, worships the Supreme God, Shang Tien, whose 
altar is in Peking, and whose rites are solemnly celebrated. 
This god is not an idol, and has no such representation. 
It is much like the "unknown god" of Athens. This term, 
Shang Tien, is used by most Protestant missionaries as the 
name for God, probably for the reason given above. We 
use a different term, meaning "Lord of Heaven," which is 
also used by Eoman Catholics, Greeks, and Mohammedans. 

Another case parallel to one in the Bible was the treat- 
ment of my men by the Chinese mandarin. In Acts xxiv, 
26-27, St. Paul is treated in just the same way by an out- 
going magistrate. The custom here, when a magistrate is 
going out of office, is to compound with the prisoners for 
as much as can be squeezed from them. A prisoner can 
get off at such a time for less than usual, because the rogue 
wishes to harvest as much as possible while the sun shines, 
and leave as little as possible for his successor to gather. 
If no money is to be had from a prisoner, he has no 
objection to leaving him for the incoming officer to try his 



hand on. After I have read my address here, I will send 
it to yon for yonr opinion. 

Hankow, Angnst 20, 1893. 

Now, in regard to making things to send here for 
Christmas, as you say the Chinese Chapter think of doing. 
I, myself, do not know enough about the women to say 
what would be acceptable to them and, at the same time, 
wise to give them. There is so much danger of the Chinese 
coming to regard us as an institution imported to supply 
them with work, food, and clothes, that the matter of 
charity has to be carefully watched and the effort made to 
have charity exerted by them toward each other. I do not 
doubt that Mrs. Graves knows of plenty of things that 
would be useful, but I do not think it would be wise to 
send until vou hear from her. I will write to her and ask 
her to write to Miss Mary on the subject. 

Last Tuesday evening I had an unpleasant little experi- 
ence. We had two young men to dine with us, and after- 
ward were sitting in the dark on the porch. I had on a 
loose linen Chinese coat, with big sleeves which were rolled 
up to the elbow, and my arm was resting on the arm of 
my wicker chair. I felt a sharp bite, and cried out that it 
must be a centipede, as it was too painful to be a mosquito's 
attack. We struck a light and found an ugly centipede, 
probably between four and five inches long, which was 
promptly killed. This is a most repulsive creature, with 
a red head and innumerable legs, and is quite poisonous. 
Fortunately, Collins had medicine at hand, and my arm 
did not even swell. This is the third one I have had the 
pleasure of meeting, but the first I have become intimate 
with. He made all the advances, but we reciprocated. 

September 3, 1893. 
My darling Father : 

I have had two very encouraging signs this week. The 

first was from Sowerby. After he left us, he wrote thank- 


ing for entertaining him. At the close he said that, in 
spite of the mistakes I have made, he thinks I have done 
very well in a very difficult position. It is gratifying to 
me to have the man who, last fall, assured me that the 
work would inevitably go to ruin if left in my hands, now 
say that, in spite of my mistakes, I have done well. I am 
not only glad to have his good will, but I sincerely value 
his opinion, for he is both a valuable and a faithful worker. 
If I have time, I intend to write to ask him to point out 
the mistakes. 

The other pleasant occurrence is that the bishop has 
appointed me a member of the Standing Committee. This 
is neither on account of my long residence in China nor 
my unique ability, but because I am in charge of an im- 
portant work which ought to be represented. But the 
sight of a kid like myself in this position ought to make 
the Church at home open its eyes and see that it is not 
wise to let the work reach the condition which makes this 

Hankow, September 17, 1893. 
My dear Friends : 

The work is, in some respects, more and more encour- 
aging, though the deeper one goes into it, the more diffi- 
culties he sees. 

In spite of the fact that I have grown steadily stricter 
in my requirements of candidates for baptism, I have bap- 
tized a great many — last Sunday twenty-six, and to-day 

One of these, who had desired to be baptized, was what 
the Chinese call very "hot-hearted," very zealous, and 
wanted to be baptized at once. I found the man came 
from the province of Hunan, the hotbed of the anti-foreign 
movement, and so fierce in its hatred that no foreigners 
are allowed to live there. If they try it, they are promptly 
driven out by the people. I told the evangelist that we 
knew too little about this man. He must wait, and mean- 


while his character could be looked into. On examination 
it turned out that his wife bore not the best reputation, 
and as, according to Chinese ideas, the husband is re- 
sponsible for his wife, I decided that I could not admit 

I supposed that after this he would have nothing more to 
do with us, so I was surprised when, a few weeks ago, the 
evangelist again presented his name. He said that, in 
spite of his rebuff, the man came regularly for instruction 
and to attend services. 

He had inquired more carefully about him, and showed 
me a written testimonial from four of the man's neighbors, 
one a Christian, saying that his character was good. Mean- 
while his wife had died, and he professed himself as very 
sorry for having let her do as she did. This was a good 
deal in his favor, but there was still room for caution, as a 
bad reputation is hard to get rid of here, and we cannot 
afford to accept such men without good evidence of change. 

So I told the evangelist that he should tell him to wait, 
a thing which displeased both of them. After a few weeks 
had passed, I again inquired if he still came and seemed 
to intend to continue coming. Learning that he was still 
regular, I said I would examine him with the next class 
from that place, and, if satisfied with his examination, 
baptize him. When I next met him, he was all smiles. 

Under the circumstances, I do not think I was too severe 
with him, and with the evidence I finally got, I think I 
would not have been justified in refusing to baptize him. 

An interesting case was in Han Chuan, a town thirty 
or forty miles from here. I could not go myself to the 
place, so I sent one of my deacons, Wang Li T'ang. I 
have had two evangelists there for more than a year, and 
we have fifty or sixty converts. 

When Mr. Wang went there three months ago, among 
the candidates for baptism was one man who had quite a 
reputation. He was fifty or sixty years old, and had land 
and money. 



Besides this, he was the acknowledged head of a sect of 
vegetarians who believe that abstinence from animal food 
is very meritorious, and who seek for salvation in this way. 
This is a Buddhist doctrine. For generations this man's 
ancestors had eaten no meat. He was the head of the sect, 
which numbers a large part of the inhabitants, and was 
looked up to by all as their teacher. He had been in- 
structed by the evangelists, and wished to be baptized. I 
may add that he bore an excellent character in every way. 

The deacon talked to him plainly, telling him, as we tell 
all candidates, that we do not use the influence of the for- 
eigner to help church members in lawsuits, nor procure 
work for them, nor give them money, nor provide coffins 
for them when they die. (These may seem trifling re- 
marks to you, but this is enough to turn back many a man 
who comes to be baptized.) He told him, too, of the things 
he would have to give up ; that, among others, he must stop 
teaching this doctrine of meritorious abstinence from meat. 

He asked if he would be compelled to eat meat, and the 
deacon said he might please himself about that, only he 
was not to think or teach that there was any merit in 
eating or abstaining. Finally he told the old gentleman 
that he thought it would be best to wait a while longer 
before baptism, so that he might carefully count the cost 
and make all necessary arrangements to break with his 
followers. This was three months ago. About three weeks 
ago I again sent the deacon to Han Chuan. 

He found the old gentleman still coming and still anx- 
ious to be baptized. He examined him, and found that he 
had a very good knowledge of Christian truth. He ques- 
tioned him further, and asked if he had entirely given up 
the worship of idols. He said, "Not quite." It was so 
hard to break with those whom he had so long taught and 
who looked up to him as their leader, so hard to come out 
openly and repudiate his former teaching and incur the 
odium which was sure to follow, that he still sometimes 
"bowed himself in the house of Rimmon" in worship. 

£149 3 


Deacon Wang told him that he could not worship both 
God and idols, he must choose between them, so the old 
man agreed to wait, and meanwhile settle the matter 
finally with his disciples. 

I am deeply interested in this case. If the old man is in 
earnest, his conversion will be a great help to us. 

When you remember that he is a man generally esteemed, 
of good education, with some property and money, you will 
see that there is still further reason for trusting him. He 
has little to gain and much to lose by becoming a Chris- 
tian, for much of his income and most of his reputation 
will be lost to him. 

Besides this, his followers are men and women of good 
lives, many of them small farmers. These men, who own 
land, are much more to be trusted than those who follow 
other pursuits, both because the nature of their occupation 
tends to produce more sturdy and healthy characters, and 
also because, being landowners and so tied to a particular 
place, it is to their own interest to be peaceable and well- 
behaved, and to abstain from anything which might 
jeopardize their position and property. Their vegetarian 
habits, too, are in their favor, for if they care enough for 
their souls to submit to such restraints, they are much 
more earnest than most of the Chinese, so that I have great 
hopes that this beginning will lead to something real and 
lasting. 1 

September 25, 1893. 

My darling Father : 

This will have to be your birthday letter, though it can- 
not arrive in time for that day. It is full of love and good 
wishes for a happy day, and many more to follow. I hope 
you are growing young as fast as I grow old. If I cant 
see you soon, I shall forget the necessary differences in our 
ages, and begin to consider myself the patriarch of the 
i Mentioned as baptized in last part of letter of November 12. 



I have stopped studying and have been engaged in 
making for myself a Chinese harmony of the Gospels, 
following Dr. Smith, and pasting in a book the sections 
cut from a Chinese Bible, in chronological order. 

October 8, 1893. 

On Thursday I married one of my deacons to the sister 
of the only native priest in this station. They are very 
nice young people. We waited some time for the bride to 
arrive at the church. She came in a large sedan-chair, 
which was so wrapped up in heavily embroidered red silk 
that there seemed to be no breathing-place. Although it 
was a Christian wedding, there was a great deal of native 
custom about it. None of the bride's family were present. 
Several friends of the groom went over the river to escort 
the bride's chair, and were very seasick on the way. This 
sort of red chair is used only for wedding purposes. Some 
years ago a young missionary lady made herself famous 
in our mission circle by taking a great fancy to the red 
chair at first sight and saying she wanted one like it. 

Well, we waited some time for the bride, and at last she 
came. To my surprise and displeasure, the chair was 
brought into the chapel and placed at the foot of the 
chancel steps. Here it waited some time, so sealed and 
quiet that one would have thought there could be no life 
inside. When the groom came, with his middlemen (who 
had arranged the betrothal, etc.), they took their stand in 
the chancel. Then two old p'o p'o (women) opened the 
silk covering of the chair and tore away the mottoes (on 
red paper) with which the bride was sealed in. I then for 
the first time got a glimpse into the chair, but not of the 
bride. Nothing was visible but a mass of red, and its 
position, with stooping shoulders, suggested an old woman 
of sixty, rather than a pretty girl of twenty-four or five. 
The old ladies then helped her out and up the steps, she 
seeming perfectly helpless — in fact, she was so, for she 
could n't see a thing. Besides that, it is Chinese decorum 



to be very bashful and reluctant about the whole thing, 
and to appear to be forced into it. 

Finally, after nearly falling up the steps, she stood be- 
fore me, and yet I had not seen her face. From head to 
foot, she was scarlet. Her tiny shoes were wrapped in 
red. She had on a queer "unfitting" dress of heavily em- 
broidered red silk, which gave one no idea of her size or 
shape. Her head and face were entirely concealed by a 
square veil of red silk, with nuts and copper coins hanging 
from the corners. This veil was never lifted. During the 
ceremony not a word of response came from her. It would 
have been improper. When the time came for putting on 
the ring, the old lady had difficulty in finding and getting 
possession of her hand. Finally it was accomplished. So 
she tacitly agreed, though she spoke not a word and never 
promised to obey, as I afterward pointed out to the hus- 
band. But that will give no trouble, for it is customary 
for the wife to obey the husband, and custom is the strong- 
est law in China. 

The deacon had invited the foreigners of the mission to 
take some foreign refreshments with him. So we ad- 
journed to his house (the bride leaving the church with 
the women, and afterward the groom), where the groom 
(not the bride) sat with us around a table covered with 
tarts and cakes, native preserves, etc., which he had bought 
from a native pastry-cook who made foreign things. The 
bride, meanwhile, was in the bridal chamber with the 

October 30, 1893. 
My dear Father: 

It is hard for me to realize that to-day is the anniversary 
of Mr. Locke's sudden purpose to go home, and Wednes- 
day, November 1, will be the first day of the second year 
that I have been in charge here. The time has gone by so 
rapidly, and the work has been so much better than I 
could ever have dreamed it would be, that it is pleasing as 


well as surprising to look back on it and think that if the 
hand of my God has been with me in the past, why should 
I fear for the future ? 

I have been very busy for some time past, and made some 
changes in the work. There were two semi-detached guest- 
rooms which were overlooked by deacons, but had as resi- 
dents simply evangelists. These are both near by, in 
Hankow and Hanyang. I decided that they did not pay, 
so I closed them. Then the work here at the big church 
is not in a nourishing condition, and I came to the con- 
clusion that it was because there was too much of what is 
foreign about it. All the work was carried on in foreign 
buildings, on a foreign street, and the result was that men 
came too much to catch the foreigner's eye and be in a 
good position for a job. So I closed all the public preach- 
ing and instruction in the concession, rented a good-sized 
building on the Chinese street, fitted it quite nicely as a 
guest-room, put in it my most scholarly evangelist with 
some assistants, and told my deacon, who works here, that 
he was to take charge of and be responsible for it, as the 
other deacons are for their work of a similar nature. Pre- 
viously our preaching here had drawn almost exclusively 
from the people of this neighborhood, which is notoriously 
poor. Now, while of course we want poor people in the 
Church, and must have them, yet it is perilous to have a 
congregation composed exclusively of them. They are con- 
stantly moving about, trying to better their position, and 
they have everything to hope for and almost nothing to 
lose by becoming Christians. In my opinion, in the pres- 
ent state of China, the only congregation that is likely to 
be strong and at all self-reliant must have a good sprin- 
kling of the middle-class merchants or the petty farmers, 
two classes which are more permanent residents and less 
likely to come for alms. So this last move is an effort to 
get hold of the shopkeepers. It is not yet fairly started, 
and I cannot judge of its success. 

I think I mentioned that I was making a Chinese har- 



mony of the Gospels, following the plan laid down in Dr. 
Smith's New Testament history. I have had it bound and 
interleaved, and for some time past have been translating 
the titles for the different topics. Of course this means 
that I got Chinese to come, told them the idea I wanted to 
express, and then made them write it, — I, of course, trying 
to improve it if I did not like it, and being judge of its 
suitability. I afterward went over it with two Chinese 
scholars (separately), correcting it each time. I am now 
reviewing it with the bishop, and shall then submit his 
improvements to a Chinese scholar. Then, when it has 
been copied, it will be ready for printing. This is the only 
way for an ordinary foreigner to get anything written in 
Chinese that will be both intelligible to a Chinese and 
pleasant to his literary taste, for this is in Wen Li, the 
literary style, and not in the conversational style. 

Now, don't think that I have done anything remarkable, 
for I have not. It was rather rash in me to undertake it 
so soon, but I needed it and had no one to do it for me. 
Then the Chinese and foreign help made it seem possible. 
I shall send you a copy when it is printed. 

Perhaps I told you of my efforts to start one of my con- 
gregations toward self-support. The congregation is large, 
and they have a very small and unsuitable place of wor- 
ship. I suggested building a church (in native style, as 
far as possible), and asked how much they would contrib- 
ute toward it. They took to the plan, and, after consulta- 
tion, said they would build the guest-room if we got the 
land and built the church. It is not very much, yet a good 
deal for them, and much more than most congregations 
would be able or willing to do. Some of them came this 
afternoon to talk to the bishop about it. It will be some 
time before they can raise the money, and the same way 
with us ; we have no fund. It is for such purposes as this 
that I need specials. The bishop has not formally sanc- 
tioned this plan, so I will not yet make any definite appeal. 



November 6, 1893. 
My darling Oscar : 

The bishop asked me to go to Wuchang on Tuesday to 
assist in the examination of two candidates for the deacon- 
ate. I did so, and Mr. Partridge and I examined them in 
the presence of the bishop. I let the former do most of 
the work, as it was my first work as examining chaplain, 
and my Chinese is not yet very free. We spent Tuesday 
night in Wuchang, and Wednesday, All Saints' day, the 
two young men were ordained to the deaconate. Very nice 
fellows they are, and apparently very well trained. 

Hankow, November 12, 1893. 

Last Monday I met with a great disappointment. I told 
you about altering my work, closing two places, and open- 
ing another guest-room in a newly rented house which was 
nicely stocked with new furniture. Monday evening fire 
broke out two doors from the place, and in fifteen or 
twenty minutes it was all gone. We lost everything worth 
speaking of, including three months' rent in advance. It 
will pinch me somewhat in my accounts, as I already had 
several hundred dollars of unexpected debt to shoulder. 
I am trying to find another place to rent. 

I sent by this mail a letter to the Board of Missions ask- 
ing for one thousand dollars (and more if they choose to 
give it) to buy a lot, as the first step toward building a 
church. I think I have spoken of the work of Deacon Hwang 
and its success. He is getting hold of a substantial and re- 
liable class of men, and succeeds in keeping them interested 
and in getting them to contribute a little money. They can- 
not buy a lot or build a church, but they say they will build 
a guest-room to accompany the church if we do the rest. 
They have already bought lamps, etc., for their chapel, but 
this is the first decisive step toward doing something for 
themselves. Land is scarce and dear here, but a good lot 


is to be had near by, in a good location. I am very anxious 
not to lose the chance, and the bishop is backing me. 

I don't need half a million just now, unless as an en- 
dowment fund, but three or four thousand would be a 
great help to me in a critical time. I think that if this 
congregation is carefully watched and guided, they will be 
the beginning, for us, of a partly self-supporting work; 
and until our people are self-supporting we cannot say 
that the work is really on a very firm basis. Of course it 
will take years to make them entirely self-supporting, but 
I believe it can be done in time, if we make the right use 
of such opportunities as this. 

There are two other little incidents which may interest 
you. You remember the man whom, for several reasons, I 
kept waiting nearly a year, before I baptized him. He was 
baptized yesterday. It seems that he was the possessor of a 
book of magic, which had come down in his family for 
generations. It was a family secret, which he dared not 
reveal. But he brought the book to the deacon and burned 
it. Does n't it remind you of Ephesus ? 

As we returned from a picnic the other day, right across 
the narrow stone path on which we were walking was a 
cross made of powdered lime. Some one, knowing we 
should return that way, had put it there for us to tread on 
as an involuntary profanation on our part, and, I think, 
to make us neutralize by such act of profanation the magic 
power that many think we possess, and which is associated 
in their minds with the cross. We brushed it away and 
came on. This device is one recognized method of exorcis- 
ing the "foreign devil." 

When we began eating lunch, the onlookers began to 
gather. As we looked down from the hillside, we could see 
them flocking to us from field and village and road — old 
ladies with babies, farmers, boys, girls, and finally some 
merchants who were passing. They gathered round and 
watched every action. Mr. Partridge had a field-glass with 
him, and that entertained them when they were not watch- 



ing the preparation, etc., of the coffee, asking if we ate the 
grounds. Finally the cloth was spread on the ground and 
we began to eat. The crowd completely encircled us and 
discussed our food and manners in a very free but per- 
fectly friendly and respectful way. One old gentleman 
!?aid he recognized nothing but the eggs and oranges. We 
had no trouble at all with them, and when we had finished, 
gathered up the fragments, and descended, many of the 
crowd followed us to the temple. We reached home about 
dark, having had a very pleasant day. 

November 19, 1893. 
My darling Oscar: 

I usually have a "second-hand" feeling on Sunday even- 
ings, so if my letters have a made-over ring to them, you 
need n't be surprised. 

I had another wedding this week — Deacon ISTieh. I 
think I wrote you about his engagement, and told you how 
his mother, while he was himself arranging for a second 
wife, fixed the matter with another girl, so that he had to 
give up his former plan and marry the girl his mother had 
chosen. Love has nothing to do with the making of 
matches here, as the parties often have never met. After 
the wedding I went to call, and found the room crowded 
with men and women who were, according to custom, mak- 
ing fun of the bride. During the first three days after the 
wedding, any one who calls is allowed to criticize the 
bride's appearance and make all sorts of fun of her. She 
is not allowed to speak. The whole thing is disgustingly 
rough and coarse, but it is "custom" and so must be put 
up with. I felt heartily sorry for the poor girl on this 
occasion, for she looked as if she might burst into tears 
any minute. [This chaffing the bride is rather brutal and 
often vulgar. The idea is to test her temper and self-con- 
trol. If she fails to stand the test the laugh is on the 
groom. — Editor.] 



January 7, 1894. 

I must tell you something about my proposed trip. To- 
morrow morning I start for Han Ch'wan, a place about one 
hundred miles away. I have over fifty members there, 
and hitherto they have been cared for by two evangelists. 
But the bishop has given me another deacon, so the one 
who has been working here is to be removed to that place. 
I start with him and another evangelist to-morrow morn- 
ing, between eight and nine o'clock. We go all the way by 
water, so I have engaged a large boat to take us all. My 
cook goes with us, and in addition to things to be bought 
by the way, I have invested in some tinned soups, fish, meat, 
and crackers. I have also bought a little earthen foot- 
stove and some charcoal. I shall load myself with clothes 
and take lots of bedding, for these boats are just like out- 
doors. I also take my sedan-chair. Most of these prepara- 
tions I am making with the bishop's advice. It does not 
sound very apostolic, I admit, but then this is not the 
apostolic age. I am putting on a little style, as much for 
the sake of my people as my own. It would really be more 
pleasant to walk, but it would be a great disappointment to 

We go by a little river which is very tortuous, so that a 
wind that one moment is favorable may be a head wind 
the next. We will use sails when possible, and at other 
times pole the boat, or men will draw it with ropes from 
the bank, just as a canal-boat. The trip ought to take 
about two days and a night up, and a night down, but 
there is no telling how long we may be delayed. I hope, 
however, to be back before next Sunday. 

April 18, 1894. 
My dear Father : 

Of course I am constantly thinking about coming home. 
It cannot fail to disturb my work, but I cannot help it. 



The prospect of being away prevents my planning the 
work, except for the immediate future, and equally pre- 
vents my undertaking anything that cannot be finished in 
a few weeks. For I leave here in a little more than six 

If I can judge at all from the way in which people here 
treat me, I can safely say that Charlotte will find some 
very kind friends in Hankow. I meet only kindness on 
every side, and my life is, so far as foreigners are con- 
cerned, very smooth. I have had a number of Chinese 
troubles lately, but I am getting used to them. One of 
my school-teachers died to-day, leaving, of course, a widow 
and debts. It is very hard to know what to do with her. 
For a week or two I have been conducting at intervals a 
trial of one of our members, and expect to ask the bishop 
to excommunicate him. Then a rascally brother of one of 
my deacons took his wife to Shanghai and sold her, thereby 
getting his brother into a peck of trouble. So you see I 
have not been free from anxiety. But tennis and the 
prospect of home are rejuvenating me. 

P.S. — Charlotte and I both want you to marry us. 

Hankow, April 22, 1894. 
My dear Father : 

The bishop is in Wuhu, and the service which he usually 
has Sunday at 6 p.m. fell to me. I made rather a bold use 
of it. I knew that most of "the elect" would be present. 
I talked to them plainly. I said I had chosen this time, 
instead of the public service in the morning, because it 
was more like a family meeting where we know and trust 
one another. I alluded to what they well knew : the utterly 
irreligious state of most foreigners in Hankow — in fact, in 
all China. They know as well as I how little success has 
attended our weekly services. I told them that we have no 
hold on the greater part of Hankow men ; that the duty of 
reaching them lies at their door, for they can do what we 

C159 3 


missionaries cannot. I pointed out how difficult the un- 
dertaking is, how impossible to man in his own strength, 
yet our duty, and as such it must be possible in God's 
strength. I then suggested three points: First, that the 
basis of it all must be God's Spirit, working first in our 
hearts, and then out from them to others. Second, that 
we need to take a plain stand in matters of right and 
wrong, and let the world know where we stand and why. 
Third, that we need some sort of organization — at all 
events, something that shall unite us in one effort and 
in some uniformity of action. I then left it to them to 
think and talk and pray over, begging that they would 
do something definite, as we are accomplishing nothing 
and must strike out a new path if we are to accomplish 
anything for Christ. It was very bold and must have 
come with a shock to their English and Oriental sen- 
sibilities. But they saw I was in earnest, they knew that 
what I said was perfectly true, and they listened with 
interest. I have hopes, though they can scarcely be real- 
ized suddenly. After they have talked it over, we may 
arrange some definite plan. The people to whom I was 
talking are, like all aristocratic English, very conservative. 
But they are good Christians, and I trust to that to over- 
weigh the other. At all events, I could no longer keep 
silent on the subject. I have told them plainly what our 
duty is, and how I think it can be done. The rest is with 

Hankow, China, May 6, 1894. 
My work goes on much the same as usual. I have made 
the time of preparation for converts longer than before, so 
that the numbers will be smaller. Besides, I have quite a 
number of candidates, who could be ready for baptism next 
month, but whom I have told to wait until I return. The 
bishop agreed with me that this would be a wise course, as 
it relieves him of the responsibility for them which ought 
to fall on me. So these names will not go on this year's 



report. But this diminution in the number of new con- 
verts gives more leisure for the upbuilding of those we 
have, and that is a vital consideration. With only one 
foreigner here, it is impossible to admit large numbers and 
at the same time properly care for the older members. 

By the way, I have changed my mind on one point and 
cut off my beard. I thought it was just as well to yield 
gracefully before I was compelled, so I took it off a day or 
two ago, apparently to the great satisfaction of my friends, 
some of whom congratulated me very heartily, though, as I 
told them, my beard was the best in Hankow. No more 
now. I may write one more letter next week. 

In the summer of 1894, Ingle made a flying home visit 
to America, to claim his promised bride, Charlotte Rhett, 
daughter of Mr. Albert M. Rhett, of Charleston, South 
Carolina. After the wedding they visited the rectory in 
Frederick, and left for the Far East on the seventeenth of 

Dr. Ingle made a note in his journal that night : "Addi- 
son and his wife left us this evening to return to China. 
I think I feel his going more than when he first went ; he 
will now have a home there, and his interests will all 
center there. This is as it should be, and as I would have 
it, but I feel as if he were gone from us in reality now. 
He will probably not return for seven years. The present 
war between China and Japan makes it dangerous there 
for foreigners, so I can but think that I may not see him 
again ; but this is all according to the course of nature. I 
have never ceased to be thankful for his call to the work 
of Missions. I would not detain him." 

Dr. Ingle lived to see him again on his furlough in 1899, 
and in the end outlived his son by several years. 


"3 knoto % toortus anB rofcere tljoti imjcUcst, etienroljere 
Satan's seat is; anB tljott {jolHest fast ^Hp jframe" 

«g>o tljat CI)P Bame map be g;lorifieU, anB CIjp kina= 
Horn come, (3 gracious H>aoiottr of tlje ojotiU." 



From the return of Ingle to Hankow, with his beautiful 
young wife, his life sounds a tenderer and more solemn 
harmony. Already he was in the rank of the veterans who 
had fought through the years of their initiation. Lonely 
years, discouraging years, arduous years had left their 
mark, and the marks of Christ's service are deep and per- 
manent. And he had tasted the flavor of victory, and had 
realized therewith his power. He had learned to follow 
the Voice and to trace the crimson way. There came to 
him, almost at once, a veteran's work. 


Hankow, January 20, 1895. 
My dear Eia : 

I think I mentioned in a recent letter that the bishop 
had appointed me one of a committee to revise the Prayer- 
book (Chinese version, of course). I asked to be excused, 
as I thought I could be of no service, but he wishes me to 
remain on it, so of course I shall do so. It will mean a 
good deal of hard work before it is finished, and, not 
unlikely, a trip or two to Shanghai for consultation. Be- 

D62 3 


sides, it will be valuable training for me, and cannot fail 
to teach me a great deal. 

I have had various and sundry dealings with the man- 
darin lately. I mentioned in my letter in the last number 
of the "Church in China/' that I had complained to the 
local chief mandarin of several men who insisted on col- 
lecting money from one of my Christians. The treaties 
exempt all Christians from paying it. I was very well 
treated by him, and got complete satisfaction. Soon 
afterward I sent to another mandarin a complaint of one 
of my own people who had gotten into a number of rascal- 
ities and used the fact of his being a member to shelter 
himself. When the mandarin understood the real state of 
the case, he gave the man two hundred blows with the 
bamboo. The rascal, seeing that things were taking a 
serious turn, and fearing to be kept in prison all through 
the New Year festivities, with perhaps additional beatings, 
sent to beg for mercy, which was granted him on his prom- 
ise of good behavior in future. So he was released, but we 
will have to get entirely rid of him, I think, so I congratu- 
late myself on having established two good precedents for 
future offenders: one, that the heathen are to treat our 
people as the treaties say they shall ; and another, that no 
member of a Church is to presume on the prestige of the 
Church's name to perpetrate his villainies. It must seem 
strange to you to hear of missionaries using such methods, 
but they are our only defense, in many cases, both from 
the heathen and from the bad ones among our own people. 
My direct dealings with the mandarin have ended here, but 
I got the United States consul, in his own name, to com- 
plain to the head mandarin of a man who used a lantern, 
with the words "American Public Hospital" on it, to help 
him in his villainies. On the strength of this inscription, 
he proclaimed himself as intrusted with national affairs, 
and even had the city gates opened at midnight to let him 
enter on his own private business. It takes the consul 
about three or four times as long as it took me, so I have 



as yet no news. But I hope the rascal will be severely pun- 
ished, as he is a cunning knave. 

We hear a little war news ; the Japanese seem to be gain- 
ing ground, though the Chinese are hurrying men from 
every corner of the empire. I trust the peace negotiations 
will be successful, as the country is feeling the war in the 
shape of taxes, and the sufferings of the wounded must be 
terrible among the Chinese, who have no system of caring 
for them. Their soldiers are underfed and underpaid by 
the officers, and when wounded are sent home almost 
penniless, with no resource but to plunder all along the 
road. The people seem to fear their own soldiers more 
than the Japanese, who have, with some exceptions, 
behaved very well. You may have seen in the papers that 
the Chinese way of urging their officers to greater efforts is 
to degrade them for every little reverse and behead them 
for great disasters, incompetence, and cowardice. Several 
of the chief leaders on land and sea have been beheaded, 
but the plan does not seem to work. 

To Rev. Joshua Kimher, Church Missions House, 

New York 

Hankow, China, January 28, 1895. 
I have not baptized very many persons because I am 
more and more impressed with the need of caution. But 
the people have been improving in various ways. Among 
other things, a weekly collection is made in each congrega- 
tion for their own poor. When I spoke to the deacons of 
introducing this custom, they thought it could only fail, as 
the people are so wretchedly poor. But it has not failed. 
The total amount of these collections will not exceed 
twenty-five dollars gold, but it was enough to afford real 
help to our own faithful poor. I am thus teaching them 
that the Chinese and not the foreign Church is to look 
after our poor. 


Hankow, February 18, 1895. 
My dear Father : 

We had distinguished visitors yesterday — the wife, son, 
daughter-in-law, and grandson of the highest official in 
these two provinces, the governor and acting viceroy. Dr. 
Mackay, a missionary friend and a lovely fellow, who has 
won an entrance into almost all the Wuchang yamens, 
brought them over to take tiffin with us, and afterward 
brought them to call. They are Hunanese, but anxious to 
know foreigners. They came in rich chairs, with soldiers, 
female attendants, red umbrellas carried in front, and all 
the rag, tag, and bobtail that is inseparable from Chinese 
rank. We received them in the parlor, but as it was 
crowded I went into the dining-room with Charlotte, Miss 
Ward, and the ladies, leaving Mackay, Collins, and Hunt- 
ington with the gentlemen. They were all very much 
pleased with the sewing-machine, which I worked for 
them. They wanted to see the church, but that was re- 
served for another day. 

Keturning from Shanghai, where he served as one of the 
committee to revise the Chinese version of the Prayer-book, 
he writes : 

Hankow, July 15, 1895. 

Here we are back in Hankow after an absence of twenty- 
three days, instead of the two weeks we had counted on. 
The work took longer than we had expected, but we fin- 
ished all that we had prepared. We revised Morning and 
Evening Prayer, Litany, Office for Ash Wednesday, Prayer 
and Thanksgiving for Communion Service. These will be 
printed and put in use, and added to as other parts are 
finished. We had to work pretty hard, but fortunately the 
meetings were harmonious. 


Hankow, July 30, 1895. 
My dear Friends : 

So far as the work is concerned, I think there has been 
an improvement, though not a large growth. Some of the 
methods that I have been employing will have to be 
altered, and every such alteration, while it may in the end 
be a great improvement, acts for the time as a check. For 
instance, I have been employing a number of men to assist 
the deacons in bringing in and instructing newcomers, and 
keeping an eye on the members. I find now that many of 
those who are brought in by them do not continue faithful, 
and if one of the assistants is dropped or discharged, many 
of those he brought in go with him. It follows from this 
that they have come in with wrong ideas, and the suspicion 
is that the men who brought them in are not just the men 
for that sort of work. It would be dangerous to attempt to 
give up the entire system at one time, and, in fact, I do 
not think that is necessary. I think the trouble is that 
work that ought to be done by the deacons has been given 
to others who have not had the training and so lack the 
character necessary for that work. I am now trying to 
concentrate, to put all real responsibility on the deacons, 
instead of dividing it among them and others. I think, 
too, that I shall have to reduce the number of my schools 
so as to accomplish more with them. And my effort now 
is not so much to get in new men as to teach those we have, 
and to train my workers. This work might well occupy 
several men, and you can judge of my delight at the 
thought of Mr. Huntington's coming. 

One striking fact in our work in China is the absence in 
most of those we meet of any lofty feelings. Everything is 
so dull, so sordid, so selfish, that appeals that would stir the 
depths of our nature seem to elicit no response but a verbal 
assent, which comes very easily and means nothing. But 
in watching the progress of the recent war and noting the 
absence of patriotism on the part of the Chinese, it seems 


to me that I found a clue to the lack of nobler aspirations. 
When a man's aims get outside of his own personal inter- 
ests, they begin to affect his family, and he works for his 
family's benefit. The next step beyond that is to extend 
his affections to his country as a nation. But the differ- 
ences of dialect, ignorance, and difficulty in traveling make 
him regard all people except those of his immediate neigh- 
borhood as aliens and more or less hostile to him and his 
interests. The natural result is that he has no higher 
aims than for himself and his family. Hence the clans 
and clan feeling, which is the strongest feeling that the 
ordinary Chinese has. He has not yet reached patriotism. 
He is devoted to his own home, but his interest in distant 
parts of the country is most vague and often felt only 
because of some old animosity which he would like to have 
an opportunity of gratifying. 

You will easily see, I think, the natural outcome of this. 
The man's nature is closed against one of the most natural 
and healthy feelings — interest in persons whom he does 
not know, but who are bound to him by ties of kinship and 
a common interest. This common interest he does not 
recognize. The result is selfishness and extreme indiffer- 
ence to events and persons outside of his immediate sphere. 

He knows little about the spirit and its needs, while he 
has had long and perhaps bitter experience of the body 
and its needs. If you, then, approach him with a claim for 
love and gratitude in return for God's love, you will find 
that he is usually very indifferent. He has heard about 
hell all his life from the Buddhists, in whom he has little 
confidence, so the terrors of hell are rather misty and 
unreal to him. As for tempting him with the promise of 
spiritual blessings, spirit is so unreal to him, and spiritual 
blessings are not to be seen, weighed, or measured. The 
end of it all is that he is very hard to reach. 

But we think we already see prospects of better things. 
Now that the war seems to be over, we shall probably have 
the country opened more and more to new ideas. I believe 



firmly in a providential ruling of the world, and I do not 
believe that God raises a nation up to a high ethical stand- 
ard merely for its own sake, but that it may be the means 
of helping others. Too often this good is indirectly ac- 
complished through schemes for self-aggrandizement. But 
even so it accomplishes its end. 

August 13, 1895. 

The terrific heat has again delayed this letter, and this 
delay has given me another Chinese outrage to add. On 
the first of August, one man, eight women, and a child 
were butchered by Chinese near Foochow, and a number of 
others severely wounded. All were missionaries. There 
was no expectation of any trouble, and no threatening. 
The victims were spending the hot weather at a place some 
distance from Foochow, and a band of men gathered about 
daylight and slaughtered them. It is the old story. The 
Sze Chuen rioters had not been punished, so others were 
encouraged to do likewise. Again it is not a question of 
missionary persecution. Missionaries are in exposed posi- 
tions, and do not usually resist. The question is simply 
this. Will Christian powers allow this thing to go on until 
all their people are murdered or driven out ? It is possible 
to deal with this case so that there will be no more like it. 

Will it be done? We have given up all hope of help 
from America. The government does not seem ever to 
think of us. If anything is to be done in the cause of 
decency and national righteousness, we look to England 
for it. It is true the Armenian atrocities were on a much 
greater scale. They stirred the whole x\nglo-Saxon world, 
though the Armenians are not Anglo-Saxons. These out- 
rages are the same thing in embryo, and only lack oppor- 
tunity to be on the same side. The men and women who 
have been slaughtered or driven out are Anglo-Saxons, 
Americans and English, whose countries boast that their 
power is great enough to command respect and make their 
citizens secure all over the world. But unless these nations 


soon bestir themselves, China will add a page to history as 
black as any ever written. [Prophecy of the horrors of 
1900 — Boxer year. — Editor.] 

Here in Hankow we feel safe. I am not speaking for 
myself, but first for the hundreds of unprotected mission- 
aries scattered in the interior, and secondly for the Chinese 
people. The great powers have no right to allow a people 
to be so vilely misgoverned as the Chinese are, and until 
their present form of government is overthrown there is no 
hope for the people. 

Pray for us, and for all God's people in this poor coun- 
try, that we may be kept safe from our enemies, and pray 
and work that God may influence the Christian nations of 
the world to hasten the day of China's deliverance from 
her bondage. 

I am convinced that the native house is better for begin- 
ning work than the chapel, for several reasons : 

First: It excites less remark and arouses less feeling in 
a new neighborhood. Huis and Hui Khans are so com- 
mon that the appearance of a new one is nothing startling. 
[Hui means society; khan, rooms. — Editor.] 

Second: You are pretty sure to have the landlord on 
your side if his property is involved in case of trouble, and, 
especially if he is a moneyed man, his influence may count 
for a great deal. 

Third: Such a building is more in harmony with the 
lives of the new converts, and does not suggest foreigners, 
foreign help, and a foreign religion. They can feel that it 
is their own. They can be encouraged to expend money on 
it, because even such small sums as they can afford to con- 
tribute will make an appreciable difference in its appear- 
ance and comfort, while the total of the united incomes 
for a month, of many small congregations worshiping in 
foreign-built chapels, would scarcely pay for painting the 
walls and floors. I have felt this difficulty. 

I am convinced, as I said, that it is not wise to build 



churches for small congregations. In addition to the rea- 
sons given above for preferring a Chinese house, I may 
add a 

Fourth: If the congregation dwindles, as they so often 
do, or is scattered by the changing or withdrawal of work- 
ers, the chapel may be almost a total loss. In the case of 
a rented house there is no loss. 

I think, too, that the native workers require regular 
supervision, and this is best done by the foreigner. Very 
few can be trusted alone long. If they are insincere, huge 
scandals may arise. Even if they are earnest, they will be 
none the worse for a little instruction and encouragement 
from the foreigner, who, however inexperienced in the 
minute difficulties of the work, should have character and 
common sense enough to enable him sometimes to solve 
problems which, to his weaker brother, seem insoluble. 

In regard to the church which we hope to build for Eev. 
Mr. Hwang's congregation, I would say that it was neces- 
sitated by the fact that the congregation had grown beyond 
the limits of any Chinese house. It was not undertaken 
until the people had contributed to put up a guest-room in 
connection with it ; and we expect to put up a simple build- 
ing as nearly as possible in conformity with Chinese taste. 
Even with these arguments in its favor, I have had mis- 
givings, but there seemed no other course to pursue without 
danger of greater injury to the work in that place. 

So much for the buildings. Now as to the workers and 
methods of work. I have at present only two evangelists 
engaged in evangelistic work — one working in Hsin T'i 
and one in Han-ch'uan, with Eev. Mr. Nieh. The others 
have all been dropped or put to school-teaching, and two 
are dead. Of the two remaining, the one in Hsin T'i 
seems to be doing pretty good work, while the other, I 
think, very good. The trouble with them as a class is that 
their Christianity has not gone deep enough to make them 
very zealous or very fit to do their work, and the lack, 
through short-handedness, of sufficient oversight has al- 



lowed many abuses of office; they need more spirituality, 
more training, and more oversight. 

But there are other things to be looked after. Those 
who wish to be baptized must be looked up, their antece- 
dents, habits, and character inquired into, and they must 
be taught, many of them letter by letter through weary 
months of work, the Creed, Lord's Prayer, and Command- 
ments. The sick and poor must be cared for and, when 
necessary, helped out of the Church alms. Irregular 
attendance must be poked up; an eye kept on the where- 
abouts of our constantly moving numbers; the rights of 
the honest and stupid ones protected, as far as possible, in 
cases of fraud and violence; while the blessed services of 
the peacemaker are often called for. When his congrega- 
tion has increased to several hundreds, the deacon cannot 
attend to all these things. 

The principle of appointing men as catechists and evan- 
gelists simply because they have been Christians for a 
number of years is so evidently unwise as not to need 
controverting. When you have chosen your men, keep your 
eye on them. Let them see that you are watching them, 
and don't intend to allow any one to go to sleep on your 
ship. Don't merely scold them through the deacon, but 
talk to them face to face. And above all, teach them. 
Don't suppose that, because they have been in the Church 
for years, they know everything. The best of them know 
little and read less. Meet them regularly in classes, give 
them lessons to recite to keep them awake. When you meet 
greet them as f ellow- workers ; treat them with the polite- 
ness that they give you; pray with them and make them 
learn to pray ; when you are berating sinners for their in- 
struction, don't be afraid to include yourself by implication 
among them. I believe that the best way to train our 
workers is by meeting them regularly and intimately out 
of the pulpit, in classes, — best held, I think, in our own 
houses, where we can act the host as well as the pastor. 
And while we are with them, let us study our men and 


their needs. No workman can do good work who does not 
know his tools and their limitations. You can't carve a 
Venus de Medici with an axe, nor yet with a rough Chinese 
chisel. But if the steel in them be good, you may grind 
them down and do fairly good work with them. So with 
our men. 

The three chief requirements of a useful evangelist are 
sincerity, sufficient knowledge, and activity. Without the 
first there is no likelihood of getting honest converts; 
without the second, the work must be very weak; without 
the third, there will be no work. 

By sincerity I do not mean deep spirituality. The more 
of that the better, but I have seen none of it, and where 
I have heard it claimed for others it has usually seemed 
to me accompanied by other very undesirable qualities. 
The case I have in mind now is that of an old gentleman 
who was said to drop on his knees whenever he had a spare 
moment. I never doubted his piety, but I had good reason 
to doubt his success as an evangelist. 

With regard to the knowledge needful, again I say, the 
more the better. But I regard as indispensable a general 
knowledge of the Old and New Testaments, and a clear 
understanding of the plan of salvation. They ought to 
know also the distinctive teaching of the Church. But 
above and beyond all they ought to know their own sinful- 
ness and the only Saviour who can cleanse and pardon it, 
and they ought to be able to make this clear to others. 
Until they attain this knowledge and can impart it, they 
will be very weak vessels indeed. I believe that God does 
sometimes use the ministry of even unworthy men to bring 
honest souls to Himself. But we have no right to count 
on it. 

The churches in Hankow that have had most foreign 
supervision have yielded fewest satisfactory results, while 
those in which the deacon has had a freer hand have been 
decidedly more prosperous. 

In regard to the general subject, it seems best to begin 



the work as simply as possible. Make them look after their 
own poor and buy their books. In furnishing chapels, etc., 
supply only what is really necessary, and leave it to them to 
add little things to supply other needs and beautify. In 
this way the people will feel that they have a real part and 
responsibility in the work, and can be gradually made to 
take the whole burden on their shoulders. 

The subject of the relation of evangelistic to educational 
work deserves more ability and more time for its treatment 
than I can give it. The great ultimate aim of all Christian 
work, and especially mission work, is to win men to Christ. 
In this respect, both preaching and school work ought to 
be one. The question which arises on comparing them, 
then, is, "Which method does most toward accomplishing 
our purpose of building up the Church ?" The one which 
best does this ought to be given the pre-eminence in any 
question between them. If any question of retrenchment 
arises, it should suffer less. If the mission is growing, it 
should grow more there. 

To my mind, the- relation between evangelistic and edu- 
cational work is like that between the stock and the bloom 
of the tree. If you wish good flowers, you need a strong, 
sound stock ; while, if your blossoms are sound and healthy, 
and end in fruit, you have in the latter a fresh means of 
propagation. So, if you have a strong evangelistic work to 
supply Christian children for instruction, they ought to be 
able to show forth not only the flowers but also the fruits 
of Christian education, and in so doing to furnish the seeds 
for a still wider propagation of the truth. 

The efforts that are put out in wisely conducted school 
work, if expended on wisely conducted evangelistic work, 
would almost certainly do much more toward gathering in 
Christians and establishing congregations. But we cannot 
be content with that. We must look to the future and 
provide leaders and teachers for the people. And there is 
no place in which they can be so well chosen and prepared 
as in our church schools. This to me is the most important 


work they have to do. But the place in which our boys' 
and girls' schools show their worth is in the Christian 
workers they furnish. We must have priests, deacons, 
teachers, catechists, and Bible-women, and we ought to 
have Christian wives for all the former. These the schools 
can furnish. 

And above all, let it not be developed at the expense of 
direct evangelistic work. It is true that the enlightening 
and healing powers of Christianity, as shown in educa- 
tional and medical work, are the necessary outcome of it, 
and ought not to be repressed. But if we are to take as 
our pattern our Lord's own words and the method of the 
apostles, the natural way to establish the kingdom on earth 
is to make disciples by preaching the Gospel, admit them 
to the kingdom by baptism, and strengthen them in it by 
teaching them all that our Lord has commanded. These I 
regard as fundamental essentials. Other kinds of work 
may be invaluable as adjuncts, but they should be subordi- 
nated in the proportion both of workers and money em- 

To sum up, then: The prime work of the Church is to 
make disciples by preaching the Gospel. The simplest, 
cheapest, and most productive method, in my opinion, is 
by what is called evangelistic work — direct preaching. If 
so, it should always be kept in the foreground, and the 
major part of energy and money be expended on it. As 
schools have shown themselves so capable of supplying us 
with able and good workers, and have besides been the 
means of bringing many to Christ, let us look on educa- 
tional work as the handmaid of the evangelistic. Let both 
be developed as highly as possible. Only be careful not to 
let what is secondary exalt itself into the foremost place, 
at the expense of the work which belongs there. [In this 
argument Ingle lays too little stress on the fact that 
medical and educational work represent the "works with- 
out which our faith is dead." — Editor.] 
From Paper sent to Shanghai Conference, February, 1895. 



Hankow, February 3, 1896. 
This has been an unhealthy year, and we have lost a 
good many people. Floods and drought have made havoc, 
and famine refugees are nocking about us. In the face of 
all this, we have much to be thankful for; I think the 
work is growing steadily in solidity, and the tone of the 
workers improving. And so I feel more hopeful of the 
future of this work. 

Hankow, March 22, 1896. 
My dearest Grandfather, Aunts, Cousins, etc. : 

I take my pen in hand, on this the second day of my 
terrestrial existence, to let you know that I, the first grand- 
son, have arrived. I am told that I look like my father, 
but I think the judgment is premature, as I am still at 
that stage in which all human beings look alike, unless it 
be as regards color. I have long, dark hair the color of 
his, but perhaps thicker on the top. My father leaves me 
rather severely alone, and I suspect is afraid of me, because 
my mother rightly sets such a high value on me. She says 
I am the prettiest baby she has ever seen, which father says 
is "stuff and nonsense/' as all babies look alike. But I 
notice that he stops saying, "Nonsense," when she adds 
that I look like him. 

I am a fine healthy boy. The venerable Chinee dame, 
Mrs. Sz, who is my attendant spirit, says I look as if I 
were two months old already, and surely weigh ten pounds. 
The scales, however, report me at 7% pounds. 

With much love to all the clan and all interested friends, 
Your loving grandson, etc., etc., 

James Addison Ingle, Jr. 

C175 3 


Hankow, April 26, 1896. 

At the Chinese service in St. Paul's, Friday, I spoke 
about Christ's stilling the storm. After service I sent out 
all except Christians, and after a short talk to them we 
received the confession from a church member of a very 
grave sin, and his profession of repentance, after which we 
all united in prayer for him. He is to remain on trial for 
a year, and if satisfactory then, to be allowed to come to 
the holy communion. 

I am about to put out a notice of excommunication 
against various hardened sinners who reject all counsel 
and warning. This man's name was on the list, but is 
now removed. I hope to have others yield as he has done. 

It is quite impossible to keep a record of Chinese names 
and residences correctly. The people constantly move, 
and, worse than that, a man will have as many as five 
different given names during his life. So if, five years 
after his baptism, you ask for a child by his baptismal 
name, you cannot find him, and the name by which he is 
then called is not on your books. Then most of the girls 
have no special name, so far as I can learn, but are called 
by "daughter," "little daughter," "elder" and "younger 
sister," and if you get a baptismal name for them, it is 
probably never used except on your books. Even if the 
girl has a given name, it is lost when she marries, and she 
merely retains the two family names. Thus you would be 
simply Mrs. Ingle Webb, and nothing more. Think of it, 
"Mrs. Ingle Webb, I baptize thee in the name," etc., etc. 
A further difficulty of identification lies in the fact that 
there are only about two hundred and thirt} r -five family 
names in general use. Some of these are so common that 
it is estimated that out of one thousand persons seven 
hundred will be represented by only fifty-seven of these 
names. Li, Tsang, Lio, Wang, and Ts'un are the most 
common, and the Mrs. Li Tsangs, Mrs. Li Lios, Mrs. 
Tsang Lios, etc., etc., are so common on the books that you 



soon despair of identifying them perfectly. The result is 
that when they are baptized I have all obtainable par- 
ticulars of age, home, family, etc., entered on the baptismal 
blank, and this is some help. I inclose both a baptismal 
blank and a certificate. The latter is stout and has a hole 
in it so that it can be tied on the belt when the owner is 
traveling. The Commandments are given in brief on the 
back, both as a reminder for the Christian and for the 
instruction of heathen. They are stamped and then var- 
nished to prevent changing or blurring. 

Undated. Received at the Missions House, 
September 9, 1896 

The figures of the report give no idea of the state of the 
Church here. They merely show that we are not idle. I 
think we are improving in quality. If so, it is more than 
the Church has a right to expect, considering how con- 
sistently she has kept the station undermanned. 

Hankow, November 22, 1896. 
My dear Father : 

We have had the bishop here lately, as you know, and he 
and Mr. Huntington went to Ichang, and on their way 
down paid a visit to our work in Shasi. They were sleeping 
on a Chinese boat, and during the night Mr. Huntington 
was robbed of almost everything except his night-clothes 
and watch, and had to dress in the bishop's clothes. He 
had intended to stop at Hsin T'i, which I have handed 
over to him, but was prevented by his scanty wardrobe. He 
has now gone back to make this visit. 

Mr. Eoots, the new man for Wuchang, has come, and 
we are very much pleased with him. Our prospects are 
growing brighter, and we are now in better condition than 
for years past. But, excepting Mr. Thomson, we are all 

[ 177 ] 


too young. The bishop is reducing things to order, a state 
scarcely known in the mission previously. 

I am very busy with my work, and am giving more and 
more time to Bible teaching. The assistants and school- 
teachers are studying the life of Christ, the deacons I am 
lecturing to, weekly, from Westcott on Hebrews, and I 
have started a number of choir-bovs on Old Testament 
history. I enjoy this sort of work very much, but it is not 
easy to translate Westcott into Chinese. 

Hankow, December 13, 1896. 
I seem to be busier every week. As I have n't told you 
for some time my schedule for work, I will give it to you. 

Sunday : Always two services, sometimes three. I gener- 
ally preach at least once. 

Tuesday night : Class of assistants. 

Wednesday night : Class of teachers. 

Thursday night : Class of deacons. Preparation for this 
class is my hardest work. 

Friday morning : Class of choir-boys studying Bible his- 
tory (Chinese). 

Friday evening: Chinese service. Deacon Wang and I 
alternate in preaching. 

I am preparing and translating a Catechism on the Bible ; 
preparing a Chinese Syllabary for the press; building a 
church 'way up in the city; superintending the work of 
three deacons; rector of the English church here, and re- 
sponsible for the services, though the other three gentle- 
men take their part ; a member of the Standing Committee ; 
one of the vice-presidents of the Y. M. C. A. I have a 
dozen of little things constantly coming upon me, besides 
having my own private affairs to manage. So I am still 



Hankow, February 21, 1897. 
You will be glad to hear that the new church for St. 
Peter's congregation, Hankow, is nearly finished and 
promises to be very satisfactory. All my specials for three 
or more years have gone toward it, and even now I lack 
a large part of the money, needed to put up schools, guest- 
rooms, etc., in the same lot. The expense has been heavy 
for various reasons. 

Kuling, the healthiest and most popular summer resort 
for foreigners in mid-China, must ever be closely asso- 
ciated with the work of the Hankow missionary district. 
It is here that the majority of its members spend their 
short vacation, and it was here that the Ingle family in- 
variably spent theirs. Ingle loved the place, and the place 
loved him. He was closely associated with its municipal 
management, and took the heartiest interest in its welfare 
and development. He was on the council that controlled 
its destinies, and the Ingle bungalow, "Ingleside," Kuling 
Valley, was a haven of hospitality, peace, and good cheer. 
No better account of the place has ever been written than 
an unpublished one by Ingle himself. He sent his family 
here for the summer, thereby insuring, so far as possible, 
their health and strength He himself remained in Han- 
kow, usually joining them for several weeks' rest and 
recreation during the most intense heat. Other members 
of the Hankow staff had, in turn, an outing at Ingleside, 
and so this little mountain home was far-reaching in its 
benefits to many to whom an Eastern summer is otherwise 

Ingleside, Kuling, September 12, 1897. 
My dear Father: 

I am sure that you will be glad to see that I am back in 
Kuling with my family. I spent nearly six weeks in Han- 


kow, and caught nearly all the hot weather there, but 
fortunately kept very well. As the fever refused to leave 
me entirely, we ceased to regard it as fever, and considered 
that my normal temperature had gone up one degree. The 
plan worked very well, and I have had no trouble since. 

Hankow, November 14, 1897. 
My dear Father : 

I inclose you English originals of two notices I have 
recently issued. They explain themselves sufficiently. 

St. Paul, in his Epistles, often says that the Church is 
the body of Christ. This being so, every insult to the 
Church is an insult to the Son, and so to the Father also. 
For our Lord said: "He that despiseth Me, despiseth Him 
that sent Me." (St. Luke x, 16.) Can this be thought a 
trifling matter? Every man then who uses the Church's 
name and influence to settle his private affairs, is using the 
body of Christ as a means, and offering insult to the Son 
of God. When to this he adds lying, surely such a man is 
not fit to receive the Holy Supper. 

Since two of our oldest members have been guilty of 
these offenses, they are hereby forbidden to come to the 
Lord's Supper for three months from this date. If, during 
these three months, they attend service regularly and sit in 
the separate seat which shall be assigned them, and at the 
expiration of the three months make public profession of 
repentance, they may be received back into full commu- 
nion. Otherwise they must be cut off entirely. 

J. Addison Ingle, 
Priest in Charge. 

Hankow, November 3, 1897. 
Dear Brethren : 

There are a few points to which I wish to call your at- 
tention, with the hope that my words may lead to more 
reverent behavior on your part in divine worship. 



First: There should be no laughing or talking in the 
church. "The Lord is in His holy temple. Let all the 
earth keep silence before Him." Hab. ii, 20. 

Second: You should be careful to appear with both per- 
son and clothes clean, your hair neatly fixed, and all other 
signs of respect. The Scripture bids us "draw near, hav- 
ing our bodies washed with pure water." Hebrews x, 22. 

Third: While in the church you should remember that 
you are in the presence of the Almighty and Most High 
God. Such acts as loud belching, spitting on the floor, 
sleeping, etc., which would be regarded as breaches of pro- 
priety in the presence of a high official, must not be in- 
dulged in in the house of Him who is "King of kings, and 
Lord of lords." Eevelation xix, 16. 

Fourth: In coming to, or presenting children for, holy 
baptism, care must be taken to choose names that are in 
accord with the teaching of the Church and the respect due 
to God. St. Paul says that the children of believers are 
holy. Since they are thus by birth holy, how dare 
we, when we present them to God to receive the washing of 
the Holy Ghost, call them "the third dog," "simpleton," 
"beggar," "monk," and such names ! 

I am sure that all these acts are done out of thought- 
lessness, and not from a set purpose to be irreverent. But 
even so, we must be careful, in all things, to avoid every 
sign of disrespect, that thus the reverent outward bearing 
may match the humble and reverent heart within. 

Your rector, 

J. Addison Ingle. 

Hankow, December 20, 1897. 
My dear Father: 

I have started a class of evangelists. We chose six of 
our best Hankow Christians, and Mr. Huntington brought 
down two men from Shasi to be trained. I hope to keep 
them under instruction for nearly a year. You will re- 

r i8i-| 


member that this was the work that Mr. Locke set such 
store by, but he had not nearly such good material as I 
think we now have. Besides them, we have brought down 
eight country Christians to stay a month or two and get as 
much instruction as possible from attendance on the class. 
These last we feed and lodge. This branch of work has 
been going on for less than a week, but I am deeply inter- 
ested in it and hope for great things from it. They all go 
to prayers at eight each morning, about 8.30 they have 
breakfast, and at 9.30 they come to my house, where I 
spend from an hour to an hour and a half in questioning 
and instructing them. Then they go back to the church, 
where the deacon goes over the next day's lesson with them. 
The evangelists are then divided among the three deacons 
and spend the rest of the day in actual evangelistic work 
under the eye of the deacons, attending services and meet- 
ing in the evening. So they are being tested all the time 
they are under instruction, and they are not allowed much 
time to loaf. 

The reason we have started them now is because we 
believe a crisis is coming in China. There is great unrest 
among the people, many of whom vaguely feel the inse- 
curity of the government and believe that some great 
change is impending. One well-to-do man recently con- 
sulted one of our members on the question how he could 
become an American citizen. Many of these perturbed 
spirits are reaching out for anything that seems firm and 
liable to weather the storm. We have gained, in some dis- 
tricts of this province especially, a reputation for honesty 
and fair dealing, and we have a number of places begging 
for teachers and offering to provide a place of worship and 
pay part or all the expenses of keeping it. 

If I could be freed from accounts, petty duties, and in- 
terruptions, I might give up most of my time to preparing 
workers. Events are developing fast now, and I fear we 
shall not keep pace with them. All about these treaty-ports, 
and even in more distant places, the people are waking and 



stirring. The bulk of them are about as intensely anti- 
foreign as ever, but when official opposition is removed 
that will not matter much. They are rough and rude 
chiefly because the officials have made them so. 

Now as to our coming home. We hope to leave here about 
November 1, though many things might happen to delay 
us. While in America I expect to spend a great deal of 
my time in speaking in the churches, and Frederick will 
be most convenient as headquarters. 


Hankow, China, October 21, 1898. 
You have seen in the papers of the Empress Dowager's 
usurpation of the throne in Peking. She is turning every- 
thing upside down, and unless she is soon checked a ca- 
tastrophe is pretty sure to follow. There are now two 
rebellions going on, and the whole country is upset. We 
recently had a severe fire in the native city here, of which I 
have written an account for the next "Church in China." 


Hankow, January 8, 1899. 
My dear Father : 

Our work is in so many respects like that of the early 
church that we often find ourselves forced into methods 
like theirs, as in the case of the discipline of which I wrote 
you recently. 

Mr. and Mrs. Ingle came to America on regular furlough 
in 1899, with two children, a daughter having been born 
to them in January, 1898. 

But his leave was too full of the "care of the churches," 
and his continual traveling and speaking for the cause so 



precious to him sent him back to China in no condition to 
cope physically with added responsibilities which were 
soon to be his, and made him more susceptible to the fever, 
which further reduced his strength. The summer of 1900, 
when, after a year's furlough, he planned to return to his 
post, was spent in America, the Missions Board having 
requested him to prolong his stay and further present the 
cause to the Church. This was the summer of the Boxer 
rebellion, and Ingle cabled to Bishop Graves, asking that 
he be returned to duty, but Bishop Graves replied by tell- 
ing him not to return at that time. 

To Rev. Joshua Kimber 

Theological Seminary of Virginia, 
December 5, 1899. 
Thanks for your consideration for my convenience, as 
shown in the suggestion not to put more engagements into 
my January program. But I fear that, if invitations 
come, I shall feel obliged to accept them as far as possible. 
I think I am accomplishing something, though I raise 
little money, and as my time is short, "I must work while 
it is day." I think the condition of the Church is very 
encouraging both as concerns men and money, and I will 
not spare myself if there seems any likelihood of my 
being able to improve it. When all signs are encouraging, 
a man can endure a good deal of work. 


"Since his return to this country on furlough, the Eev. J. 
Addison Ingle, of St. Paul's Church, Hankow, China, has 
been almost constantly occupied in speaking on the work 
in China and upon missions in general. So numerous have 
been the requests for his services that the secretaries felt 

D84 3 


justified in asking the Bishop of Shanghai whether it 
would be possible for him to defer Mr. Ingle's return to his 
work from April to August. This the bishop has con- 
sented to do. The clergy who may desire Mr. Ingle to 
visit their parishes may communicate with the correspond- 
ing secretary. During Lent Mr. Ingle will be occupied 
with visits in South Carolina, Georgia, and other Southern 
States." — Spirit of Missions. 

To Rev. A. 8. Lloyd, D.D. 

Frederick, Md., July 25, 1900. 

Thanks for the letter of the twentieth. Please send the 
cablegram, "Ingle ready when wanted," to the bishop. I 
do not think it will influence his action, but it may help to 
cheer him in these trying times. Send me the bill. 

The Boxer year, which many had prophesied, and Ingle 
among them, when the "Old Dragon' made a last deter- 
mined effort to drive out the hated foreigner and every 
last vestige of his disturbing civilization, is a matter of 
history and not of biography. Ingle and his family were 
home at the time of its eruption, and with a number more 
were detained in America until it should again become 
feasible to send missionaries into the interior. He was 
prepared and only too ready to sail at the slightest intima- 
tion from his bishop, but the very presence of any for- 
eigner was not only of no avail to his Chinese friends, but, 
on the contrary, was the most deadly possible menace to 
them. This was fact and wisdom, in spite of the piffling 
ignorance of a certain few stay-at-home-would-have-some- 

To Mr. John R. Wood 

Frederick, Md., September 5, 1900. 
Now I wish you would consult the other secretaries and 
let me know what you think I had better do. Of course I 



wish to go back just as soon as I can, and I do not like to 
make any engagements which I may be unable to keep 
when the time comes. But if you wish to make use of me, 
I am at your service. 

St. John's College, Shanghai, 

October 31, 1900. 
My dear Father : 

We reached Yokohama in fine condition; no seasickness 
and a good voyage, though little sunshine. There we re- 
ceived Bishop Graves's telegram telling me to bring the 
family with me to Shanghai. We found that all of our 
people except one had left Japan, so we joyfully continued 
our journey. 

All is perfectly quiet in Shanghai, and there are about 
seven thousand troops here. The schools here are in full 
swing, with no lack of scholars. All is quiet along the 
river. Some of our men have been in Hankow all summer, 
and services have been maintained for the Chinese, both in 
the Concession Church and in Wuchang, with fairly good 
congregations. Men are returning to the ports, but very 
few women have gone back yet. 

The Chinese Government as yet shows no signs of re- 
pentance and seems to be trying to undermine the power 
of the peaceful viceroys on the Yang-tse by appointing 
anti-foreign officials under them. There is danger that the 
powers may leave off their work and patch up peace before 
lasting peace can be secured. There is some talk of a visit 
of foreign troops to Hankow and perhaps up the Han, but 
no one knows what will be done. It is likely that things 
will be in an unsettled state for some time to come. 



To the Rev. Joshua Kimber 

Hankow, China, March 4, 1901. 

Work has heen resumed everywhere, and the wheels are 
beginning to revolve as before, but more slowly. I do not 
believe there is any great addition of prejudice against us 
among the people, as a result of the punishments inflicted 
in the north, and feel sure that, when the people really 
know what has happened, they will have more respect for 
us than ever before. You know that there are some people 
who can readily be made to respect and love you by licking 
them. And the Chinese are of just that servile nature. 

I returned this morning from a trip with Mr. Sherman 
to Han-ch'uan, sixty miles away. I found things in better 
condition than I had been led to expect, and we had no 
trouble with the people. Our Christians have not entirely 
recovered their drooping spirits yet, but I hope they will 
soon be themselves again. I baptized one old woman. 

Hankow, April 28, 1901. 
My dear Family : 

Things continue perfectly quiet in the Yang-tse Valley. 
The court in Hsi-an is as obdurate as ever, to all appear- 
ances. But there are still a large force of foreign troops in 
the north and plenty of gunboats on this river, so the 
likelihood is that there will be no disturbance here at least. 
I should not be surprised if there were some recrudescence 
of the trouble in the north, but I think the troops there can 
deal with it. The final settlement seems little nearer than 
it was six months ago. I am glad to notice in the home 
papers that our people are beginning to realize that the 
court is playing them and the world false. Nothing but 
the strongest pressure can bring them to terms. They do 



not know how to be honest. They trifle and dally with 
every point that comes up, hoping that something may 
occur to stave off the evil day of settlement. 

I remember what a howl was raised over the demand for 
the execution of some of the worst murderers of last sum- 
mer. The American people seemed to think that it was 
little better than murder itself. But it is worth remember- 
ing that the court claims to have been under restraint when 
the edicts for the attacks on foreigners were issued, and not 
to have been responsible for them. And it is known that 
the chief officials were warned by others of saner mind, 
who were also in high office, not to obey them. So that the 
responsibility rests, to a great extent, on the individual 
officials who carried out the orders. Seen in this light, 
especially when the havoc that was wrought and the num- 
ber of lives lost are taken into account, very few executions 
have been demanded ; most of the demands are for degrada- 
tion or banishment. A decree has also been dictated by the 
Allies and accepted by the court. It was issued in Peking, 
and, I hear, has already been put out in Kiang-su province. 
It denounces the authors of the outrages and says that they 
have been punished. It announces the suspension of 
examinations in the districts where foreigners were killed 
or cruelly treated, and prescribes death as the penalty of 
all who join in anti-foreign movements. Further, the 
high officials are held responsible (as Chinese law always 
does hold them responsible, except in cases of attacks on 
foreigners) for all disturbances, and are threatened with 
degradation unless they speedily put an end to them. Of 
course the edict was extorted by fear. But if it is really 
spread over the country, it is pretty sure to have a good 
effect on the people. They are great respecters of the 
powers that be. Meanwhile foreign enterprise is pushing 
its way more and more, and several new steamers are built 
or building for the Yang-tse trade. 



Hankow, China, May 17, 1901. 
My dear Friends : 

After the Chinese had been thoroughly whipped in the 
north and things seemed to be approaching some sort of a 
settlement, the clergy returned to their posts and were 
joined by their families. Later the unmarried ladies came 
back and work was resumed all along the line. First the 
churches in the cities, which had been sealed and guarded 
by the Chinese officials, were opened and services begun. 
Then the country stations were manned, and lastly the 
boarding-schools opened their doors once more. And 
now everything is going on as before. The attendance 
at service is not as large as it once was, and there are fewer 
candidates for baptism. Still there have been quite a 
number of persons baptized and confirmed since our re- 
turn, and men and women are still preparing for baptism. 

It is no wonder that the people still feel unsettled. They 
know that last year's uprisings were the work of the offi- 
cials, and they have not yet seen sufficient evidence to 
convince them that they have changed their mind. Most 
of them have little idea how crushingly the Chinese troops 
were defeated whenever they ventured to stand against the 
foreigners. There are few newspapers among the Chinese, 
and they are thoroughly unreliable. So the poor scarcely 
know what to believe or expect. And while they are in this 
state of mind, they very naturally hesitate to connect them- 
selves with the religion of the foreigners, who may be, 
before long, again marked for destruction. 

I recently met with a very sad but interesting case which 
shows how strong is Chinese unwritten law. A young man, 
about twenty years old, came to tell me that he was in 
trouble. "This morning," he said, "as soon as my father 
and mother had gone out of town for a short time, my wife 
hanged herself." "Did she kill herself?" "Yes, she is 
quite dead." "Why did she do so? You must have 
treated her badly." "No, I was not yet married to her. 

[189 3 


My mother had taken her to raise as a wife for me." 
"Then your mother or father must have ill-treated her. 
She must have had some reason for such an act." "I don't 
know what it could have been. And then as soon as they 
heard of it, her family came and plundered the house. 
They broke up all they could not carry away. And now 
they not only insist upon my paying all the funeral ex- 
penses, which I am quite willing to pay, but they say I 
must also pay for Taoist priests to pray for her soul for a 
hundred days, and must myself, with my mother, burn 
incense and prostrate myself before her coffin. If I refuse 
they will prosecute me." 

I sent to inquire, and found it very much as he had said. 
It was one of the common daughter-in-law suicides. It was 
some days before I learned all the facts. But when they 
came out they were as follows : 

The girl had been taken up by the mother as a "little 
daughter-in-law," to be raised for her son. This is a very 
common practice, and has the great advantage of giving 
the old woman a slave for a long term of years. The girl 
has no rights and is often cruelly treated. When this hap- 
pens she has absolutely no redress, except to make life 
miserable for her oppressors by killing herself. The mother 
in question had taken a dislike to the girl, and though she 
was twenty years old and almost past marriageable age, 
refused to marry her to her son. This insult weighed on 
the poor girl's mind. On the morning of this particular 
day, the old people were starting off to visit the family 
graves in the country, and the old woman had promised to 
take the girl. But the latter made some mistake in the 
preparation of the family soup, so her cheeks were slapped 
and she was told she could not go. After they had left the 
house and she was quite alone, she bathed herself, put on 
her best clothes, and hung herself to the ladder leading 
up-stairs. She was dead when discovered, and as soon as 
her family heard the news they came down in force and 
pillaged the house. No one resisted them. It would have 



been useless. Public opinion is always on their side in a 
case like this. Such a suicide is taken as proof that the 
girl had been abused by her mother-in-law. Then came 
the demand for Taoist masses for the soul of the departed. 
And not until all these terms were settled, and they lasted 
through several days, did the girl's family allow the coffin 
to be closed. The weather was warm, and the house soon 
became absolutely uninhabitable. That open coffin was 
their strongest card, and they played it for all it would 

It was a horrible and disgusting case throughout. One 
of its remarkable features to a stranger is that the law did 
not appear in it at all. No coroner viewed the body; no 
judge heard the case. ~No one dared check the aggrieved 
family in wrecking the house. They had the parents-in- 
law entirely in their power. The latter dared not appeal 
for protection, fearing an even worse fate. The parents 
were not seeking to have any one punished. They only 
wanted a proper funeral, and were so low as to use the 
decomposing corpse of the daughter to extort satisfactory 
terms. All this is not exceptional, but the regular pro- 

Hankow, May 26, 1901. 
My dear Family : 

I have not been doing much work lately, and we have a 
good deal of company. In addition to the people of our 
own mission, we often have visits from the members of 
other missions who are passing through on their way to 
the far West, or people from other parts of China, who 
have taken advantage of spare time in Shanghai to run up 
to see Hankow. Then there is the globe-trotter pure and 
simple. We have two of these now between here and 
Ichang. They will soon be back, and if I am still here, it 
will be incumbent on me to show them the few sights of 
the neighborhood. As most of these people wish to see our 
work in Wuchang, arrangements must be made to get them 



over the river. They cannot move without our help. So a 
good deal of time is lost doing things for them, such as 
buying tickets, calling, quarreling with and paying coolies 
to draw their rickshaws or carry their baggage. Our Wu- 
chang people are very good about helping with our visitors, 
and we are always glad to have their guests here to supper 
when they are about to go on the steamer, which always 
leaves at night. When this happens, the host has to come 
over to see the guest off and then spend the night with us, 
as he cannot get back to Wuchang after dark. Not count- 
ing the young men who live with us, I am sure we have 
averaged a guest a day to a meal ever since we came back. 
Of course it takes lots of time, but it is all in the day's 

Things continue very quiet here. I think the imperial 
edicts have helped to quiet men's minds to some extent. It 
is very hard to learn the real state of affairs in the north, 
but so far as we can see, things are progressing slowly. 

Hankow, June 9, 1901. 
Dear Family: 

We have had a lot of trouble lately with the servants. 
One day, as Charlotte and I were going out, we saw a tin 
box of butter which had evidently just been drawn up from 
the well. We never allow our butter to be put under the 
water of the well, as we suspect it will be impure. So we 
sent for the boy and asked why this had been done. He 
replied, "It is not yours." "Whose is it?" "It was 
brought by a boy who asked me to put it down to cool." 
"Where did it come from?" "He said he came from the 
bank across the street." So we went over to warn the lady 
of the house that the butter was suspicious. She, of course, 
knew nothing about it, and her servants denied having had 
anything to do with the affair. I then told our boy, whom 
I already suspected of something crooked, to find the boy 
and bring him to me. He then pretended to try, but said 


he could not find him. I told him I did n't believe him. 
After waiting a few days, I asked Mr. Wang to help, and 
we put that domestic through a small inquisition. I prom- 
ised not to punish him if he would tell the truth. For a 
long time he stuck out. But we pointed out the unlikely 
features and refused to believe them, and I gave him to 
understand that I would discharge him unless he told me 
the truth. We already knew pretty well what that was. 
At last he admitted that it was butter that he had stolen 
from us by degrees and put in that tin. Evidently he was 
going to sell it to some other house-boy or keep it until we 
bought a fresh tin that size, when he would keep the 
unopened tin to sell, and use this one. 

Hankow, June 16, 1901. 
My dear Family : 

This is the second suit of clothes I have had on to-day, 
as the first was so wet that it was no longer fit to wear. 
We have had frequent thunder-storms, but each one only 
served to make the pressure more intense. Fortunately, 
another heavy rain came up about an hour ago, and the 
temperature has dropped eight degrees and is likely to go 
still lower. So there is a chance of getting more sleep than 
usual. We have had dreadful nights lately, hot and damp 
and with almost no air stirring. And I have never seen 
mosquitoes so bad. They fairly swarm over the house, and 
about twilight, if you stand in a corner of the room, you 
can hear a dull roar on all sides, which fills you with ap- 
prehension. I killed over two dozen in our net about one 
o'clock the other night, and some every night since. We 
are about to have our mosquito-house put up, and then, I 
think, things will be better. 

These people have wonderful grit in their own peculiar 
way, which is very different from ours. Mr. Wang went 
to visit our work in Huang P'i last week, and brings back 
very encouraging reports, though he had to discharge his 



school-teacher for misbehavior. Inquirers are increasing, 
and the neighbors are most friendly. One of them said to 
him, "You people must not be discouraged if the work does 
not grow very fast. Be patient. Such teaching as this 
must prosper in time, not only here, but everywhere." The 
people of one of the villages have rented a house which is 
to be used by our catechist when he goes there to visit and 
preach. And all the people who come to us in these places 
are respectable — chiefly shopkeepers and men of that class. 
Our Hankow work is rather slow at present, I hardly know 
why. But if we pull along faithfully through this slack 
season, improving our methods and training our workers, 
we are sure to have plenty to do by and by. So we plod on. 

Hankow, July 31, 1901. 
The bishop recently wrote that he intended to ask for a 
division of his jurisdiction and the election of another 
bishop. In case his request is granted, he will come up- 
river to live. We are all very much pleased at the news, 
as we feel the inconvenience of having him six hundred 
miles away and only seeing him twice a year. Pott will 
probably be elected bishop of the Shanghai province. 

To Mr. John W. Wood 

Hankow, China, August 11, 1901. 
Your mild remarks about specials touch my heart. I 
feel for you. Perpetual dripping may soften even a heart 
of stone. But, for the present, we cannot do without 
specials. Every church that we have in Hankow has been 
built, and the land on which two of them stand has been 
bought, with specials. And there is no reason to think 
that we. would have got them in any other way. St. Bar- 
tholomew's clergy house has been rebuilt and two wings 
added out of specials; and we could not have got them in 

Ingle ''Mud-larks," Hankow, 

By the Study Window. 


any other way than by specials. I do not say that in future 
it will be impossible to grow without specials. I believe it 
will be possible. And when I think the time has come, I 
will be willing to dispense with them. 

There is a dreadful flood at present all down the Yang- 
tse, from Ichang nearly to Shanghai. Thousands of 
square miles of land are under water, and just at a time 
when the rice crop was coming on. Many lives have been 
lost and a vast quantity of grain destroyed. There is every 
prospect of something like a famine this winter; and a 
famine generally brings attempts at rebellion, or at least 
large numbers of starving, lawless bandits. A coolie in 
Kiukiang is said to have captured a cradle from the river, 
in which a smiling baby was sailing to his fate. As the 
baby was unable to give an account of himself and had no 
visible means of support except his smile, he was promptly 
sold for the benefit of the finder. 

Hankow, August 18, 1901. 
My dear Family : 

In the first place, she grows lovelier and sweeter every 
day. [His wife. — Editor.] I am not alone in this opin- 
ion. The girls and boys who have lived with or near her 
for the last seven months are as devoted as they can be. 
Every woman in the mission, so far as I have had the 
means of judging, loves her , The natural result is that I 
grow prouder of her every day. The children, too, have a 
fine time. They are barefoot most of the time, and are 
growing tough. They are both of them very attractive, 
and not bad for such lively scamps. 

I caught cold and had to shut myself up from every 
breath of air when the temperature was 98 and the mois- 
ture not more than ten degrees behind. The result was 
that I sat in my study, simply "passing sweat/' as a Chi- 
nese school-boy recently wrote to a friend. My cold is 
better now, and I am sitting under a punkah. My fever, 



too, instead of leaving, has shown some tendency to go 
higher. It does not give much trouble so long as it is 
simply fever. But in the spring it took another turn, and 
I am afraid it may have some other weapons in its armory 
to bring forth later. I have tried every remedy the doctor 
could suggest, but nothing moves it. I am now convinced 
that it would have been wiser to do less work while I was 
home. But I felt it was a pitiful time with the Home 
Church, and did not like to lose the opportunity. 



Lotest tfcott Jlte? iFeefc JHp s&eep!" 

"C&at so t&ere map lie one foltr ttntier one fl&ep&erU 
JesttB! Christ our LorV 


In - his report for January, 1900-01, Bishop Graves an- 
nounced the intention of asking the General Convention to 
divide his jurisdiction into two districts, the one to center 
in Shanghai and the other in Hankow. And largely 
because he was at that time familiar with the Hankow 
dialect, he expected himself to have charge of the new 
district of Hankow. The reasons given for the division 
were four in number: the enormous size of the field 
(163,412 square miles, with a population of over 75,000,- 
000) ; the two almost distinct languages spoken therein; 
the difficulties of administration over so vast an area; and 
the growth of the mission, which had doubled within a few 

The Convention of 1901 took the suggested action and 
set apart the two provinces of Hupeh and Anhui, with 
portions of Kiangsi and Hunan, to make the new district 
of Hankow, and the province of Kiangsu was left to con- 
stitute the district of Shanghai. Contrary to all expecta- 
tion, Bishop Graves selected Shanghai for his own 
jurisdiction, and the General Convention elected the Eev. 
James Addison Ingle to the bishopric of the new district 
of Hankow. This action was taken in October, 1901. 

The principal stations of the new district were Hankow, 
Wuchang, Nganking, Wuhu, Shasi, Hsin T'i, Ichang, 
Changsha, and Han-ch'uan. 



To J. W. Wood, Esq. 

Hankow, China, November 9, 1901. 

Since you wrote my prospects have greatly changed. I 
had been basking in the anticipation of many years of work 
under the guidance of Bishop Graves, when suddenly 
comes the news that I am called to guide others. It was a 
great surprise, as we had no idea that the bishop was likely 
to reconsider his choice of the field. I am naturally im- 
patient to know what caused the change. 

The way the news of my election was received by the 
mission was most encouraging as well as surprising. If 
there had been in my mind any fear that party feeling 
still lurked in our body, it would have been effectually 
dispelled by the greeting I got from men and women of all 
shades of opinion. And as Bishop Graves is leaving the 
work well organized and fairly well manned (far better 
than ever before), we shall start auspiciously. 

Of course I am all at sea as regards the particulars of 
my consecration. I should like it to be held here, if it is 
possible to get the consecrators. I think it would be good, 
not only for the Chinese, but for the foreigners as well. I 
think we are really making an impression on them with 
our English services and social intercourse. Sherman is 
in charge of them, and is most faithful. His visits to the 
hospital, chiefly to the sick sailors, and his earnest, sym- 
pathetic way with every one, have made him many friends. 
And we have prospects of a class for confirmation before 
very long. 

The first intimation Ingle had of the Church's call to 
him came through a cable of congratulation from his home 
church, All Saints, Frederick. He seemed scarcely to 
believe it could be meant for him, and reflecting that he 
could not acknowledge the cable before he had been of- 
ficially informed of his election, he and his wife did not 



speak of it until about a week later, when the cable an- 
nouncing his election to the bishopric of the new diocese 
of Hankow was received. He was surprised at his election, 
but of course gratified and encouraged that the Church 
had shown such confidence in him and his work. He spoke 
to his wife constantly of his fear that he was not worthy 
to take this highest office the Church offers her servants, 
but he believed it was God's call, and in a spirit of true 
humility and deep prayerfulness he accepted it as such. 

Hankow, November 13, 1901. 
My dear Family: 

To-day brought the first particulars of my election. Of 
course it is very gratifying ^o know that the nomination by 
the House of Bishops lacked only one vote of being unan- 
imous. I received a delightful letter from Bishop Graves, 
whom you all must see some day. He says he will be out 
here — or, more likely, will start out — in December. So I 
suppose the consecration will be held in China, and, I 
hope, in Hankow. Probably Bishops Partridge and Mc- 
Kim will be asked to assist Bishop Graves. I do not think 
the robes can be properly made here, so I am going to ask 
Father to see about having them made for me. I am just 
about his height, but a little thicker and broader. If a 
little allowance is made in the seams, I think this will be a 
perfectly safe way to get them. 

To Rev. A. S. Lloyd, D.D., 
281 Fourth Avenue, New York 

Hankow, China, November 15, 1901. 
I have been made very happy by the way in which my 
election has been received by my fellow-workers. They 
have rallied most loyally, and there is promise of hearty 
support from all sides. For which I am very thankful. 

[199 3 



The first bishop of the American Church to be conse- 
crated in China was raised to the episcopate in St. Paul's 
Church, Hankow, on St. Matthias's day, 1902. 

As soon as it became known that the Eev. Mr. Ingle had 
been elected bishop, the new district began to prepare. It 
was learned that the Han-ch'uan Christians wanted to 
present him with something in honor of the event. He at 
once let it be known that if any church or group of Chris- 
tians desired to show their joy at his consecration, they 
would please him most by choosing something for his 
church — the future cathedral. 

The day began early with a celebration of the holy com- 
munion in English at seven. At eight was the Chinese cele- 
bration, and here a large number communicated. At 9.30 
morning prayer was said, also in Chinese, and directly 
afterward all last preparations were made for the next 
service. Tickets had been issued some days before to those 
who were to have the privilege of coming. The church 
would have been half filled over again if all interested 
could have been accommodated. Only a few catechumens 
could be allowed to join the Christians inside, and heathen 
were entirely shut out. The screen which usually separates 
the men from the women had been removed from the mid- 
dle aisle, and on one side the Chinese men sat, on the 
other the foreigners, and back of them the Chinese women, 
all in their gayest clothing, and with flowers and bright 
pins in their hair. 

The service began, of course, with the Communion Office. 
Bishop Graves was celebrant, and Bishops Partridge and 
McKim assisted him. This part was all in Chinese, the 
choir singing the responses to the Commandments and the 
"Gloria Tibi," and leading the great congregation in the 
Nicene Creed with a volume of sound that must have been 
impressive to the foreigners following in their English 



books. Then a hymn, "0 Spirit of the Living God" ; then 
the sermon in Chinese by the Bishop of Kyoto. His text 
was St. Matthew xxiv, 45, 46, and 47. The hymn, "Crown 
Him with Many Crowns," followed, and during the last 
verse the candidate was led forward by his attendant 
clergy, to be met at the choir steps by his presenters, the 
Bishops of Corea and Tokyo, and between them he walked 
to the chancel rail, within which Bishop Graves was sitting. 
The bishops presented him, the certificates were read, Mr. 
Ingle made his promise of conformity — this all in English 
— then Bishop Graves bade the congregation pray for the 
candidate, and the Litany and prayers were said in Chi- 
nese. Then, rising, the presiding bishop asked the solemn 
questions, and Mr. Ingle made his answers — these in Eng- 

The Rev. Mr. Wood announced the hymn, "The Church's 
One Foundation," and while this was being sung the can- 
didate was vested with "the rest of the episcopal habit" in 
the robing-room, and, coming out, knelt for the last solemn 
act — the receiving of the Holy Ghost by the laying on of 
hands. Bishop Graves and the foreign clergy sang the 
"Veni Creator," sung over so many thousands of God's 
servants in so many widely differing places, and now over 
this priest, who was to make a new link in the chain that 
shall one day end with Christ at His coming, as it began 
with Him. The bishops laid their hands upon his head; 
he was given the blessing, the charge, and the encourage- 
ment; and then rose to be led to his new seat by his old 
friend, his tried co-worker, his valued chief pastor — now 
his fellow-bishop. 


To the Foreign Workers of the American Church Mission 

Hankow, March 19, 1902. 
My dear Friends and Fellow- workers : 

I have been called, in the providence of God, to the 



superintendence of the work in which we are united — the 
work of preaching the Gospel and building up the Church 
of Christ in China. As I have not had, and probably shall 
not have, an opportunity to address the whole body of 
foreign workers face to face, I have adopted this as the 
next best method of telling you something of my thoughts 
about the present and hopes for the future of our work. 

First let me assure you of my deep gratitude for the gift 
of the beautiful pectoral cross. It is the style of cross that 
I like best, and I could wish nothing more beautiful in 
design or workmanship. I shall always cherish it as a 
precious pledge of your affection. 

Turning now to the field of our labor, we find ourselves 
face to face with opportunities such as the Church in 
China has never before seen. Whether it be evangelistic, 
educational, or medical work, the land is open before us. 
The only limits to our extension are our own weaknesses 
and shortcomings and the insufficient supply of workers 
and funds from home. We could use an indefinite number 
of properly qualified native workers if we had a few more 
men and women to supervise and the funds to support 
them. I am sure that both the latter needs will be freely 
supplied when the Home Church knows our plans and 
work better. But a well-trained body of native workers 
is not to be had for the asking. It requires years to pre- 
pare them. Yet we must have them. For, looking to the 
future, they are the only absolutely indispensable arm of 
the service. There will come a time when foreigners are no 
longer needed, perhaps will not be tolerated. But the 
Chinese Church will never be able to dispense with the 
ministry of its own people. 

The main work of the mission, then, in my opinion, — the 
work which justifies the Home Church in supporting us 
here, — is the raising up, out of their own people, of men 
and women who shall be leaders, spiritually, morally, and 
intellectually, to the Chinese. (All this, of course, with 
the sole aim of bringing the nation to Christ.) And our 



ideal should be to have such a body of Chinese workers that 
if, at a moment's notice, we should all be withdrawn, the 
Church, in all her various activities, would go on steadily 
without us. 

I beg the members of the mission to remember this and 
to be guided by this ideal in their dealings with the Chi- 
nese clergy and other co-workers. Look upon them, not as 
inferiors, but as fellow-Christians and fellow-laborers ; not 
as children, to be alternately spoiled by petting and brow- 
beaten by scolding, but as younger brethren and sisters 
whom you are helping to train. When, for instance, a 
Chinese clergyman has proved himself capable and trust- 
worthy, allow him some initiation in his work. Do not 
make him always appear in public as your subordinate. 
Honor him before his people. Let them look upon him as 
their pastor, for that he must, in the last analysis, be. 
Encourage them to go to him with their joys and sorrows. 
Let him marry and bury and perform other such offices for 
them. Some of our native clergy think that some of our 
number are trying to "keep them down." If we give them 
only the disagreeable subordinate work, and reserve for 
ourselves all positions of honor and prominence, it will be 
no wonder if they fail to co-operate with heartiness. 

As our work extends, the number of native workers will 
be increased indefinitely, but there can be no proportionate 
increase of the foreign staff. Details must more and more 
be relegated to trained Chinese, and the time and strength 
of the foreigners given to the problem of leadership and 
training. I hope the foreign staff, especially the clergy, 
will bear this in mind, and endeavor, by diligent study, not 
only of theology but also of the language, literature, and 
people of China, to fit themselves for whatever duties the 
future may impose upon them. 

Now a few words about our treatment of each other. In 
the constant intercourse of our mission work, each is sure 
to see and grow weary of the foibles and shortcomings of 
the other. It will be well to remember that the fact that 



others have not spoken does not prove that they have not 
seen greater faults in us. It is part of the missionary's 
vocation to put up with the disagreeable qualities of his 
fellow-missionaries. It is also part of his own training in 
Christlikeness. "If there is therefore any comfort in 
Christ, if any consolation of love, if any fellowship of the 
Spirit, if any tender mercies and compassions, fulfil ye my 
joy, that ye be of the same mind, having the same love, 
being of one accord, of one mind; doing nothing through 
faction or through vainglory, but in lowliness of mind each 
counting other better than himself; not looking each of 
you to his own things, but each of you also to the things of 
others." (Philippians ii, 1-4.) This spirit is the only 
guarantee of mission harmony. 

In conclusion, please remember that your bishop, with 
all his failings, is honestly trying to serve his Master, his 
Master's Church, and his brethren. He feels no prejudice 
against, or partiality for, any worker as compared with 
another. He has no wish to impose his personal views or 
his own churchmanship upon any one. What he most 
earnestly longs for is the harmony and efficiency of the 
mission. Treat him with frankness, as he will treat you. 
He begs from you indulgence for his frailties, and your 
prayers at all times. He prays for you the strength and 
peace of those whose lives are "hid with Christ in God." 

Affectionately yours, 

James Addison Ingle, 

Bishop of Hankow. 

About this time Bishop Ingle prepared a most excellent 
guide to candidates for the Hankow district, from which 
the two extracts which follow bear on the life in the mis- 
sion and the kind of men wanted. 

"The life of the missionary is one of close and constant 
intercourse with a few members of his own race, and of 
more or less superficial intercourse with large numbers of 



an alien race. In both departments all Christlike gifts 
and graces are needed. As regards most of the Chinese, 
their lives and ours are lived in such different spheres, with 
so few points of contact, that the friction is relatively lit- 
tle. But to live month after month within the same walls 
with two or three fellow-workers; to face them, and no 
others, day after day at table; to hear the same topics 
discussed and meet with the same foibles and failings in- 
cessantly, with no prospect of variety for many months 
ahead: the ability to pass through this with unfailing 
gentleness, courtesy, and unselfishness is one of the most 
valuable qualifications a missionary can possess. On the 
other hand, the lack of these qualities will make life hard 
both for the man himself and his fellow-workers, and may 
even totally disqualify him for effective work." 

"What kind of men, then, are wanted? Not merely 
those of high character, good education, and sound phy- 
sique. All these are essential. But a good deal more is 

"We want open-minded men, not those with pet theories 
to exploit ; men who will be ready to acknowledge that they 
know practically nothing about the work, no matter how 
many books they may have read. They may expect to 
unlearn almost all they have learned. We want men who 
can do this without too great a strain on their fellow-work- 

"We want companionable men. As has been said, in 
mission work one's time is spent in closest contact, often 
under the same roof, with other workers. These conditions 
sometimes test to the utmost a man's unselfishness, hu- 
mility, gentlemanliness. The cross-grained, selfish man 
may make life unbearable for a whole station. 

"We want men of intense and well-balanced determina- 
tion. Reckless enthusiasm, which violates the rules of 
common sense, may do irreparable harm. But both in the 
study of the language and the prosecution of the work the 



prospect will often look dark and the newcomer be in- 
clined to despair. He needs a reserve of faith and en- 
durance to tide him over these periods of depression. 

"We want men with a broad outlook. We are still in the 
day of small things, but we are planning our work by the 
light of the Church's experience in past ages, and for all 
those ages that are yet to come. Our main duty is to teach 
and lead the leaders of the Chinese Church, and give them 
broad views and a boundless hope, and the courage to at- 
tempt great things in the face of insuperable obstacles. 
The Church's course cannot be stopped simply because 
difficulties are insuperable. If we cannot find a way over, 
we must make a way through. For this we want leaders, 
men of power and initiative. 

"But the quality which, above all others, will vitalize 
and make effective the missionary's work is the possession 
of a real and deep religious faith. If he cannot speak with 
the conviction of personal experience, how can he hope to 
convince others? 'Art thou the teacher of Israel and 
understandest not these things ?' No matter what branch 
of the work he hopes to enter, this qualification is necessary 
to every worker. We want men and women to whom God's 
will and the claims of His kingdom are paramount; to 
whom all men are brethren and to be brought to the know- 
ledge of the common Father; in whom "Christ is all and 
in all." 

Hankow, Easter day, 1902. 
My dear Family : 

Your Easter day is beginning now; ours is about to close. 
The English church was full, a thing that rarely happens, 
and there were more people at communion — twenty-eight 
— than I have ever known. This is the result of Sherman's 
faithful work for the community. It has done a tremen- 
dous amount of good. He had special services every night 
last week, which were pretty well attended, and roused 
more interest in religious things than had been here before. 



He has actually succeeded in organizing a guild of young 
business men, some of them just confirmed, whom he has 
set to work to do something for others, and they did most 
of the work connected with the meetings. The offering 
this morning was for the work of the mission, in con- 
sideration of the free services that the mission has given 
the community for ten years, and it amounted to two hun- 
dred dollars Mexican, quite a good sum. Sherman's young 
men think it will be possible to raise half the salary of the 
man who is in charge of the English work. The present 
church building is in very bad condition, and will have 
to be pulled down, or it will fall. But the committee think 
that they will be able to raise the several thousand dollars 
needed to rebuild. So you see we have a great deal in this 
department of the work to encourage us just now. 

In the Chinese department things go on about as usual. 
There are encouragements and discouragements. But we 
take the former for all they are worth, and refuse to be 
deterred by the latter, so we manage to get on. We need 
a couple more men pretty badly. I thought I had a fellow 
from the Philadelphia Divinity School the other day, but 
it turns out that he had first applied to Bishop Graves, and 
for some unexplained reason was turned over to me. So, 
as Bishop Graves needs him as badly as I, I am afraid 
there will be little chance of my getting him. But I hope 
I shall hear of others soon. 

I expect to leave to-morrow to visit my down-river sta- 
tions at Nganking and Wuhu. 

Bishop Ingle's own accounts of his visit to the down- 
and up-river stations appeared in consecutive issues of the 
"Spirit of Missions," and are well worth the reading in 
full, The latter account is as follows ; 




I told of my visits to the down-river stations; that is to 
say, the points east of Hankow. There still remained, 
besides Hankow, Wuchang, Han-ch'uan, Tsaitien, and 
Huangpi (which are at or near headquarters), the up-river 
stations to be visited. This I proceeded to do on May 4, 
when, in company with Mr. and Mrs. Eoots, I left on the 
steamer Kiang Wo for Hsin T'i, which is the nearest to 
Hankow of the up-river stations. The steamer was late in 
leaving Hankow, so, instead of reaching our destination 
about six o'clock, it was midnight before the captain, with 
many apologies, bowed us over the side of his ship to the 
passenger boat that had come off to meet us. Late though 
it was, we had the usual greeting of torches, crackers, and 
chairs, and were borne through the silent streets to the 
chapel, which was decorated for our coming, and where we 
found that the Christians had not been deterred by the 
lateness of the hour, but were on hand to greet us. How- 
ever, the deacon, Mr. Fu, soon sent them home, our bed- 
ding was spread in the rooms which Mr. and Mrs. Fu and 
the teacher had vacated for us, and by two o'clock we were 
prepared to sleep — so far, that is, as the swarms of rats 

The next morning Mr. Roots and I started for Chuho, 
leaving Mrs. Roots to spend a few days alone with the 
women, who were nocking to see a foreign lady. Mr. Fu 
had engaged two small boats in which we were to make 
the thirty miles, and we were soon ensconced in them 
and on. our way. We made our way across the lake and 
up the little stream which leads to Chuho, but so slowly 
that it was eleven at night when we reached our destina- 
tion. There was some misunderstanding as to where we 
were to land, but, after some delay, we were in our chairs 
and started through the town. At this late hour I had 



expected to find the town quiet. To my surprise, the 
streets were crowded. The front of every house was packed 
with not only men, but women and children. If the chair 
paused for a moment, half a dozen pairs of curious eyes 
peered into it. Our chair-bearers, unfortunately, were 
regular yamen carriers, and they shouted and pushed their 
way along the streets with as much noise as possible. The 
whole town was there to see, and they were bound to make 
it as great a function as they could. At last the chapel 
was reached, but even so the crowd pushed in until there 
was scarcely room for us to sit. But for nearly an hour 
we did sit, like strange animals on exhibition, while the 
steaming crowd, for it was hot, swayed back and forth in 
response to the pressure of continually arriving reinforce- 
ments in the rear, and watched and criticized us. 

The next day we learned the reason of this excitement. 
The people had seen the chairs going to meet us and had 
been told that a bishop was coming. They did not know 
exactly what sort of a beast he was, but dimly thought that 
he was something greater than a viceroy. So they stayed 
up half the night to see. The next day one of them was 
heard to say, "After all, a bishop is pretty much like other 
men, except for his hat." Some of them, too, seem to 
have thought that Mrs. Roots would be with us, and the 
sight of the foreign lady would well repay the loss of sleep. 

We spent that night on the boat for privacy, and the 
next morning dressed with the eyes of scores of men, 
women, and children upon us whenever a crack afforded a 
view. A party of children from a neighboring boat even 
crawled over into ours to obtain a nearer and clearer view. 
It was a great relief to go up to the chapel, for several of 
the officials had come to call, and one had sent men to 
guard the gate and prevent the intrusion of undesirable 
persons. So we were fairly quiet and able to do our work 
without interruption. 

We had first a celebration of the holy communion and 
then passed to the examination of candidates for the 



catechumenate, baptism, and confirmation. This work 
took all the morning, and it was noon before we were 
ready for the service. Mr. Eoots admitted catechumens 
and baptized, while I confirmed and preached. 

We started on our return trip in the afternoon, and 
reached Hsin T'i the next morning about ten o'clock. As 
soon as we were settled, Mr. Eoots began to examine candi- 
dates, and at four o'clock I confirmed ten and preached. 
We had scarcely left the chancel when word was brought 
that an up-river steamer was approaching. As it was not 
known when another would come — perhaps not for several 
days — I decided to try to catch it. Then there was scur- 
rying to and fro. The cook had to get together my travel- 
ing outfit and his own. When one starts out on a three or 
four weeks' trip, in uncertain weather, and has to take 
clothes and bedding for heat and cold (there are no 
laundries on the way), robes, a set of communion vessels, 
a camera (for the benefit of the "Spirit of Missions"), 
food, and cooking utensils, besides clothes and bedding for 
the cook, the procession that escorts him to the boats forms 
quite a caravan. All were finally started, I mounted the 
chair, and we set out for the river bank. The boat was a 
Japanese one, and I was soon on board for Ichang, leaving 
Mr. Eoots behind to spend a few days with Mr. Fu before 
returning to Hankow. 

Mr. Fu, by the way, is something of a doctor. Where 
he got his learning I do not know, but his people had 
enough faith in his skill to intrust him with about twenty- 
five dollars for the purchase of medicines when he recently 
made a visit to Hankow. I found that he had a regular 
dispensary with fixed charges for different classes of pa- 
tients. He shows equal diligence and enterprise, too, in 
his church work. There is a steady addition to his num- 
bers, he avoids lawsuits, and manages to live on good terms 
with our Eoman Catholic neighbors — quite an achievement 
in Hsin T'i, where, in years past, we have had a great deal 
of trouble from them. Among the candidates for baptism 



and confirmation there were several interesting cases of 
men whose lives have recently undergone a marked change 
for the better; who have returned, after perhaps years of 
wandering, to take on themselves fresh vows and seek new 
strength. And the number of those whose entire family is 
in the Church is steadily on the increase. This is always 
an encouraging sign. It was Wednesday, May 7, when I 
boarded the Ta Yuen at Hsin T'i, and I hoped to reach 
lchang by Friday night. But Friday morning the steamer 
went aground and stayed there for several hours, so that 
it was late Saturday when I reached lchang, and was met 
by Mr. Huntington and Mr. Ts'en. Sunday we had the 
usual morning prayer, when I preached and confirmed two. 
The men's side of the church was filled. Among the others 
I noticed a Buddhist monk, who is a regular attendant, 
though not a member. There was also a good attendance 
of women. Since Mr. Huntington came here to live, the 
congregation has increased greatly, and he has been 
obliged to move the school-boys to a gallery above the en- 

lchang is a beautiful place. The mountains come right 
down to the river and seem to beckon one away to their 
heights. Behind the nearer ones rise range after range, 
while scattered everywhere are peaks of queer, fantastic 
shapes, some sharp, some rounded, many of them crowned 
with temples that look inaccessible. We devoted one after- 
noon to a visit to the temple in the San Yeo Cave. To 
reach it we were obliged to leave the river and mount, by 
long stone steps, to the summit of the hill which here 
forms the river bank. Along this we traveled for some 
time, the river hundreds of feet below us, until the path 
took a sharp turn to the right and led us along the face of 
a steep precipice to the temple itself. It is built in a 
natural cave in the face of a cliff, which rises far above it, 
while many feet below a crystal stream winds on its way to 
join the Yang-tse. The interior of the cave was in dire 
confusion, as the buildings were being repaired, and the 



idols and all their paraphernalia were huddled together in 
the center. Everything was dingy and dark. The walls 
of the cave were disfigured by the hundreds of names of 
Chinese and foreigners which were scrawled or painted on 
them. There was nothing imposing, nothing inspiring, 
until we went to the window and looked out on the moun- 
tains and the stream, and realized that we were still in 
God's world. 

The day after I reached Ichang I was invited by the Eev. 
Mr. Deans, of the Scotch Church (Presbyterian) Mission, 
to conduct the service for foreigners in the Scotch Chapel. 
He had no objection to my wearing my robes, so I officiated 
in full vestments, using the Prayer-book as far as was pos- 
sible. The invitation was a welcome indication of the good 
feeling existing between the two missions. 

May 16, in company with the Eev. Mr. Huntington, I 
left for Shasi, where we spent Whitsunday. At morning 
prayer I preached and confirmed three. 

Monday morning we hurried to the little boats which 
had been engaged to carry us to Chiao Wei. It was a 
beautiful, bright day, and we slowly rowed along the tiny, 
winding stream that leads from Shasi out into the lake 
across which lay our destination. We passed under several 
stone bridges and alongside a handsome guild-hall, in front 
of which are two iron posts with iron dragons gracefully 
coiling about them. They irresistibly recalled the brazen 
serpent in the wilderness. But there is no "life in a look" 
at these. 

I was surprised at the size and good condition of the 
buildings which the people have given for mission work. 
Chiao Wei is only a village of a few hundred people, but 
its claim to consideration lies in the fact that the fertile 
plain about it is strewn in every direction with similar 
hamlets which can easily be worked from this as a center. 
The trained Bible-woman, Mrs. Wu, has done faithful 
work under great difficulties. From what we heard, the 
condition in private morals in this little place is most 



deplorable, and urgently cries for the regenerative power 
of the Gospel of Christ. 

At eight o'clock Tuesday morning we had service. One 
child was baptized, five persons confirmed, and I preached. 
About eleven we started in chairs for Honkang, distant 
five miles from Chiao Wei and about twenty-five from 
Shasi. On the outskirts of Honkang, which is a good- 
sized town, we were met with the customary fire-crackers 
and escorted to the chapel. Most of the expense of buying 
and fixing this building has been borne, as in Chiao Wei, 
by the people themselves, and they have the land, and think 
they can raise the money to erect a proper church. At 
present the quarters are very cramped. I was favorably 
impressed with the work that Mr. Lieo, the catechist, is 
doing here. I met a number of the Christians, who seemed 
to be men of respectability and some substance. They are 
interested in helping along the work, and willing to con- 
tribute of their means. I was glad to learn that there is no 
longer any trouble with the Roman Catholics, as they have 
given up work in this place. So there is peace for the 

We had not a moment of privacy from two o'clock, when 
we reached the chapel, until we went to bed. There was 
only one room which kept up any pretense of privacy, and 
that was the bedroom of the catechist. And into this the 
women swarmed all day to see Mrs. Lieo. As for us poor 
men, we wandered back and forth seeking fresh air, sur- 
rounded by a group of lively little Christians, who were 
very much interested in everything we did and every book 
we tried to read. A steady stream of Christians, catechu- 
mens, and inquirers kept strolling in, and there was a new 
face to bow to almost every minute. 

We had service in the afternoon, and Mr. Huntington 
baptized one man and I preached. Some time after service 
was over, Mr. Huntington and I were sitting in the open 
space behind the chapel, enjoying the cool air, when a man 
named Leo appeared, who had walked ten miles to be 



present at the instruction class that night. In the course 
of conversation it appeared that he had been an inquirer 
far longer than the required time, but had hitherto hap- 
pened to miss the occasions when inquirers were admitted 
catechumens. So Mr. Huntington examined him, and, 
finding him satisfactory, held a special service to admit 
him. Late at night the last visitor was bowed out of the 
door ; our beds were spread, on doors which had been taken 
from their hinges, in the guest-room; the mosquito-nets 
were hung; and we retired to get ready for an early start 
in the morning. 

At six the next day there was a celebration of the holy 
communion, then a hurried breakfast, and before seven we 
were in our chairs and beginning our twenty-five-mile ride 
to Shavang, which we reached at three o'clock. There was 
the usual serenade of fire-crackers, greetings from the 
assembled Christians, and then for hours a steady stream 
of Christians, catechumens, and inquirers, who had left their 
work on hearing of our arrival, donned their cleanest long 
gowns, and hurried to the chapel. They filled the guest- 
room to overflowing, sitting there silent but happy, con- 
scious that they were part of a function. 

Soon after our arrival Mr. Huntington set to work to 
examine candidates. At about seven o'clock we entered 
the chapel for service. The building was well filled, about 
sixty being present. Mr. Kuei admitted the catechumens, 
Mr. Huntington baptized, and I confirmed six and 
preached. The work in this place seems to have improved 
very much during the last two or three years. The build- 
ing that the members have supplied is neat and serviceable. 
The men I met seemed to be substantial members of the 
community. The catechist is a steady, reliable man. So 
we hope to see a strong work develop here. 

After the celebration of the holy communion early the 
next morning, May 22, I started for Hankow, leaving Mr. 
Huntington to make his way back to Shasi and thence by 
steamer to Ichang. Thirty-six hours later I was at home 


again. My trip had lasted twenty days; I had traveled 
about seven hundred and fifty miles and confirmed thirty- 
one persons. 

The general impression made on my mind by my visit 
to all the stations, up and down river, was distinctly en- 
couraging. I found that the work was being done not only 
industriously, but intelligently. The behavior of catechists 
and people has improved greatly. We rarely have need to 
find serious fault with one of the former, while the latter 
have a far clearer idea of their duties as Christians than 
ever before. The system of discipline, on which we have 
been working for the last seven or eight years, is now in 
force in almost all stations, and is proving itself a great 
assistance. More and more the workers of all classes are 
coming to realize the mission motto of "Thorough." We 
have in most stations, and are supplying to all as rapidly 
as possible, trained clergymen, catechists, Bible-women, 
and teachers. One of the most encouraging signs is the 
frankness with which most of the native workers meet the 
foreign clergy and discuss with them matters of impor- 
tance about which, ten years ago, they would not have 
opened their mouths. 

In short, training and organization are increasing the 
effectiveness of our work. The workers are trying to co- 
ordinate their departments so that each may tell on the 
other. The Chinese clergy keep up a regular correspond- 
ence with one another, in which they discuss and settle 
many matters of importance. And all who can do so meet 
once a month. It is hoped that the catechists and teachers 
may be organized in somewhat the same way, so that they 
may mutually uphold each other and be able to help us in 
improving the methods now in use. As for the Chinese 
clergy, with scarcely an exception, their efficiency and 
general helpfulness increase year by year. 

Two thoughts were deeply impressed upon me as I went 
in and out among our people and saw how differently they 
regard questions of right and wrong from their heathen 



neighbors. The first was: What a revolution must be 
wrought in the mind of a sincere heathen when he is 
brought face to face with the ideal of the Christian. It is 
no longer a string of platitudes about what "the superior 
man" will or will not do by virtue of his innate superiority. 
Nor is it a series of austerities, pious deeds and silly per- 
formances, by which merit is accumulated. The voice of 
authority says, "Thou shalt," "Thou shalt not." It is the 
voice of the true, the holy, the only God. It does not sug- 
gest or advise, but demands conformity to the likeness of 
the Son of God, the Man Christ Jesus. It promises 
strength and ultimate success. As day after day unfolds 
more clearly the deep-seated ills of this decayed civiliza- 
tion, so more and more firmly am I convinced that nothing 
but the response of her people to this voice of God can save 
China from utter, irretrievable ruin. 

The second thought was: What must it mean, to one 
who is truly trying to attain this ideal, to realize that the 
Church is earnestly watching his every action, ready to 
praise, ready to blame — if necessary, to punish? Some 
one cares for him as a man — not for his money, but for 
him, that he may become more a man. When he sees his 
fellow-Christians punished for serious offenses, not by a 
money fine, but by open discipline which marks for them 
and all the world the hatefulness of sin, he must realize, 
if he reflects at all, that the thing which the Church most 
loves is holiness, most hates is sin. And she stands ready 
to lead all her children in the way of holiness, to insist 
that they shall walk in it, on pain of forfeiture of their 
rights as children. I believe that, for a young Church 
newly emerged from heathenism, there can be no more 
helpful influence for molding character than a wise dis- 
cipline, tenderly, prayerfully administered. 

Hankow, July 13, 1902. 
My dear Family : 

Cholera is raging among the Chinese, and the deaths 

from it are very numerous. Only three foreigners have 



died of it in Hankow. The hospitals can do practically 
nothing to cope with such an epidemic, because there are 
no sanitary precautions taken outside. I have had a very 
good preparation compounded in large quantities and dis- 
tributed to all our chapels, and have heard of a great many 
cases cured by it. I have heard of only one death among 
those who have taken it. I don't feel nervous about it, 
because it is a disease which is contracted only through the 
mouth, and I take great precautions. 

Hankow, July 15, 1902. 
My dear Wood : 

For the benefit of both of us, I am putting into writing 
the gist of what I recently said to you about the coming 
into the mission of members of the Order of the Holy 

I have a warm admiration for the zeal and devotion of 
those members whom I know best, and should be happy to 
see it enlisted in the Master's service in this field, provided 
that I am satisfied that it can be done to the benefit of the 
whole work. 

As you know, I try to eliminate from the consideration 
of such matters all personal opinions and prejudices, and 
decide them solely on the basis of what our Church allows 
and the peculiar circumstances of the mission permit. My 
ambition is to have the mission, as a whole, truly represen- 
tative of the Church that sends it. This does not coun- 
tenance parties in the mission, while it does allow 
considerable liberty of individual action, all of it subject, 
however, to what can with more or less definiteness be 
pointed out as "mission tradition" or "mission policy." 
You know what this means, and that it has changed, and 
will continue to change, with the expanding life of the 

There are three points on which I wish clear and unmis- 
takable information before I think it wise to accept the 
member of any order. And I wish it from the applicant as 
an individual, and not from the order speaking for him: 



(1) Allegiance. What promises of obedience has he 
made? A missionary bishop cannot develop his work 
aright unless he has canonical control over his workers. 

(2) Public Religious Practices. Yon know how much 
liberty is allowed in the mission. I do not think there is a 
more catholic mission in the world, so far as allowing 
differing views and practices is concerned, than the two 
branches of the China Mission. But there are points 
beyond which we cannot go without disturbing the har- 
mony and good will which are among the best assets of 
the work in the field, and alienating the sympathy and 
support of a large part of those at home whose represen- 
tatives we are. 

So I should wish to know whether or not an applicant is 
prepared to fall in with the mission spirit in this respect. 
Are there any practices or doctrines, besides those which 
are in vogue or practically accepted in the mission, which 
his conscience would compel him to adopt in public minis- 
trations? In other words, can he conform to that regu- 
lated liberty which has been the mark of the mission and 
its bond of harmony in the past? Or does he expect to 
have things his own way ? 

(3) Private Practices to Which He is Bound, so Far as 
They Affect His Health and Work. His private devotions 
are between himself and God. So far as they are not 
unchristian, and do not cause conflict or confusion in the 
work, the bishop has nothing to do with them. But it is 
of the greatest importance that he be not bound by rules 
relating to dress, food, habits of devotion, etc., which in 
this country might be hurtful to him physically and a 
hindrance to his successful work. 

Kuling, Hankow, August 26, 1902. 
Dear Dr. Lloyd : 

I am afraid you will be disappointed by what I have to 
say. I am not at all discouraged by the results of our 

[218 3 


work, yet I cannot boast great things of our people, speak- 
ing broadly. In my own mind I account for this as fol- 
lows : 

1. Missions in China have been, from the start, mixed 
with politics. I am not sure that this was entirely avoid- 
able, but it has had a most hurtful influence, especially of 
late, when it sometimes seems that all spirituality has been 
crushed out by it. The missions that interfere to help 
their people are on a boom, the others languish and find 
all their efforts hampered by this state of affairs. 

2. We are absolutely unlike the Chinese in every phys- 
ical, mental, and moral habit. Our best intentions are 
misunderstood and many of our best efforts wasted. Our 
only hope is in native workers. But one generation is a 
short time in which to develop them to a point of high 

3. Christian Chinese are drawn from such a bottomless 
pit of corruption that even considerable progress upward 
does not appear such to the onlooker at the edge of the pit, 
from whom they are still so far removed. They are sur- 
rounded by shams and frauds, material and moral filth. It 
requires a long time to get the miasma out of their systems, 
and only the most delicate thermometer will note progress. 
With this preface, I will try to answer your questions. 

(B) The conditions of domestic life are certainly im- 
proved among Christians. We have been backward in this 
respect because such improvement depends chiefly on the 
co-operation of husband and wife, and until very recently 
we have had no women workers to reach the women. But 
I have quite often heard of cases in which the Christian 
life of the one has put an end to domestic strife and won 
the other over to the faith. The steady increase of infant 
baptism in some places shows that a new conception of 
their duty to children has come to them. I have never 
heard of infanticide practised by professing Christians, 
though I should not dare to say it has not been. The 
heathen custom of hurrying the body of a child to an 



imhonored grave, with no service of any sort, is giving way 
to Christian burial. 

(D) As to the increasing value set on human life, I 
think there is improvement. But this needs explanation. 
The Chinese law on the subject of homicide is the old 
Mosaic one, "A life for a life." That sets a purely fic- 
titious value on life, as it has reference solely to penalties. 
Deaths from flood, fire, or pestilence have very little effect 
on any but those immediately affected. Suicide is very 
common and reprobated chiefly by those who suffer in con- 

I am satisfied that our people [native Christians. — Edi- 
tor.] are more humane. They are far from having our 
idea of the sanctity of human life, and are as likely as not 
to wear a smile while telling of some frightful calamity. 
That is a racial habit. But our Hsin T'i people recently 
dispensed cholera medicine to thousands of the heathen, at 
their own expense of trouble and money. 

(E) The desire to educate their girls has shown great 
improvement of late. 

Don't think from what I have written that I am dis- 
couraged. I am not. We have cleared away tons of rub- 
bish and will some day reach rock bottom. But we are 
still carting garbage. When we reach the rock, building 
will be more rapid. 

Hankow, October 2, 1902. 
Mr. E. Walter Eoberts : 

Every one is now back to his post, and fall work well 
under way. Littell is back, brimful of enthusiasm, as 
usual, and we hope soon to welcome Mr. Gilman. The 
work in the capital of Hunan province, Changsha, is 
started in a rented house with a deacon in charge, assisted 
by an experienced catechist. We have much to be thankful 



Hankow, October 5, 1902. 
Mr. John W. Wood : 

About two weeks ago, the Rev. Li Yuen Lin of Wuhu 
was subjected to disgraceful treatment by a minor official 
in that place. He was trying to protect one of his school- 
boys from a sharper, and asked the official to judge the 
case. This was refused, with the result that when Mr. Li 
left the yamen, the rascal followed and attacked him. He 
returned and asked the official to deal with this new devel- 
opment. Instead of justice he got only insult, and was 
finally tied up and sent, under escort of a number of sol- 
diers as if he were a brigand, to the yamen of the highest 
local official, who passed him on to the next in rank. His 
Chinese friends hurried to his help, and one of them, a 
military official, went his security and he was released. The 
next day the magistrate heard the case and ordered that 
the sharper receive eight hundred blows. The petty official 
who perpetrated the outrage was said to be drunk at the 
time. He has been deprived of his office, and it is hoped 
that public apology will be made to Mr. Li to restore his 
face, and then the matter will be considered ended. One 
interesting feature of the case is that the non-Christian 
correspondents for the Shanghai native papers were un- 
sparing in their denunciation of the official and their praise 
of Mr. Li's character and service to the community during 
the floods of last year. Even this heavy trial will no doubt 
turn out for good to the Christians of Wuhu. Mr. Lund 
has the matter in hand, and hopes that it may soon be 
satisfactorily settled. 

Hankow, November 2, 1902. 
My first ordination came off on Tuesday, and I was for- 
tunately able to get through with it without any trouble. 
It was a very impressive service, I thought. I inclose a 
couple of photographs. In the picture of the clergy in 


their robes, the four in front — one deacon, with his stole 
across his breast, and three priests — are the newly or- 
dained. I did one thing in the course of the service which 
I thought I would never have the courage to attempt: I 
sang (in accordance with the direction of the rubric) my 
lines of the "Veni Creator." Miss Carter, who is a good 
musician, practised it with me, and said I sang it correctly. 
One never knows to what depths he may fall when he sets 
out to be a missionary. 

Yesterday was All Saints' day, and again I was unable 
to be in the church. We are trying to make a special 
feature of this service, in the hope that it may supply the 
want which the heathen express in their ancestral cult. 
The latter is very ignorant and stupid and unchristian, but 
I disagree with most of the missionaries who see in it 
nothing but evil, an idolatrous practice and one to be cut 
up, root and branch. All our mission, however, agree that 
the Church teaching which centers in All Saints' day is 
capable of supplying all that the Christians need. And we 
are trying to demonstrate that. So the church was deco- 
rated for the occasion, and the music was specially suitable 
and well rendered. The sermon was on the blessedness of 
those who depart in Christ. A board, with the names of 
the members of the congregation who had died within the 
year, and the sentence, "Blessed are the dead who die in 
the Lord," was hung outside the church entrance. After 
the sermon, which came in its usual place in the Commu- 
nion Office, the board (diptych) was brought to the 
chancel and the names read aloud to the congregation. 
Then two prayers of comfort and thanksgiving from the 
Burial Office were read, and the hymn, "For all the saints, 
who from their labors rest," was sung. Later in the day 
those who have friends and relatives buried in our cemetery 
visited their graves, and some of our foreign staff put flow- 
ers on the graves of the few members of the mission who 
are buried in Hankow. I think the possession of this 
festival and all the legitimate teaching and comfort which 



it involves, is a great advantage to our Church. Some sort 
of reverence to departed ancestors is the cardinal tenet of 
all Chinese religious belief and practice. There is so much 
that is worthy in the sentiment that I feel that we ought 
to do all we can to cherish its benefits, while discarding its 
abuses. Extreme opposition to all outward signs of 
reverence to the departed is insisted on by almost all mis- 
sionaries, on the ground that it is idolatrous. Protestants 
are afraid to substitute any form of Christian service in its 
place, lest they be accused of Romish practices. The 
Romanists are down on the ancestral cult, because the 
Pope once told them to be so. They have, of course, their 
dreadful doctrine of Purgatory, but I should think that 
would bring little comfort to any one. We are given a 
sufficiently definite doctrine of the communion of saints 
and the state of the departed to supply the deepest cravings 
of this ancestor-reverencing people. And we expect to 
develop it to supply that need. This is only one of many 
problems, all of the greatest importance to the future of 
the Church in China, which are perpetually seething in 
my brain. 


Hankow, January 25, 1903. 
My dear Family : 

The news throughout the mission is good. There is 
activity and growth everywhere, and the opportunities are 
far too many to be seized with our slender resources. To- 
gether with the disquieting political rumors, there are 
many encouraging signs of improvement in the country. 
There can be no doubt that progress is being made. The 
viceroy of these two provinces attended the closing exer- 
cises of Boone School last week, and spoke in highest 
praises of what he saw. He said he would come often to 
Mr. Jackson for suggestions in his educational schemes. 
He has as interpreter a young Chinese just graduated from 



Cornell University — not a Christian, but well-educated 
and broad-minded. He is quite intimate with all the mis- 
sion, and we hear interesting things from him of what goes 
on in official circles. The viceroy seems really trying to 
start proper educational schemes, but probably they will, 
like the others, come to little, because they are trying to do 
something about which they know little and will not take 
the advice of competent persons. They expect to establish 
universities ready-made and complete, do it cheaply, and 
have them in perfect running order after a few months of 
preparation. Of course they cannot do it. I can see noth- 
ing of education in China that shows signs of permanence 
except missionary work. 

January 28, 1903. 
My dear B. : 

I am learning many lessons amid my new duties. One 
is that a bishop need never expect to rest. I have been 
quite unwell for more than three months, but have made 
two visitations and kept my home work up fairly well. 
You can imagine how many details claim my attention in 
a work like this that is just forming itself and developing 
its policy. Leaving out the Chinese workers and converts, 
who are quite enough to occupy several bishops, the man- 
agement of the foreign workers, accepting or rejecting 
applicants, housing them and setting them to their proper 
work when they come: this is difficult work and full of 
pitfalls. I have to study the idiosyncrasies of each man 
and woman and try to place them where the friction will 
be least. There are quarrels to be made up; personal 
tribulations to be consoled and dealt with ; personal wishes 
to be consulted; secrets to be kept; and, Billy, the girls 
and boys will occasionally fall in love and insist on marry- 
ing, to the ruination of my plans. But they are the finest 
lot of men and women in China. We are more harmonious 
than any mission of our size I know ; our workers are loyal 
and hard-working, proud of their Church and proud of 

£224 3 




Bishop Ingle among his Workers. 

Cathedral Choir. 1902. 


their mission. And only yesterday I heard of a remark 
made by a member of another mission, to the effect that 
ours was unquestionably the coming mission of this part of 
China, because we are so thorough, especially in the train- 
ing of our native workers. You may imagine how that 
pleased me. For years my program has been: "Teach, 
train." And the other day I held the first conference of 
the trained catechists, of which you will read in the "Spirit 
of Missions," and for four days met and discussed our work 
with twenty-five men, in the training of all of whom I had 
had a part. It was a keen pleasure, as you will know, since 
you are training men for similar work. 

Our Chinese clergy, too, are in the main the source of 
great joy and satisfaction. None of the missions around 
us can touch them with their workers, so far as character 
and ability are concerned. 

February, 1903. 


I have been asked to draw up a statement of our plans 
and needs, that the Home Church may know our aims and 
how they may be furthered. After consultation with all 
the foreign workers in the field, I have formulated a plan 
which we hope may be realized within the next five years. 

The general scope of our aim is as follows : 

1. Evangelistic 

To plant strong central stations in important places, 
especially provincial capitals. From these, villages and 
smaller towns can be worked. Most of the foreign staff 
will be placed in such places, where their work will be to a 
great extent the training and guidance of native workers. 
The direct work among the Chinese must more and more 



be delegated to the latter class, who are showing them- 
selves, with increased training and experience, increasingly 
capable and trustworthy. 

Of the four capitals of provinces which are, wholly or in 
part, embraced in the district of Hankow, we already have 
work in three, having recently begun in Changsha, the 
capital of Hunan. The expense of this last work is borne 
by the foreign missionaries personally. We have important 
work in seven large cities along the Yang-tse from Ichang 
to Wuhu, all centers of wide-spread influence, and in most 
of these we hope to see, besides evangelistic work, educa- 
tional and medical work also. 

2. Educational 

We wish to have in each station one or more well-con- 
ducted and scientifically taught day-schools. We already 
have a number of these, in which the scholars pay tuition, 
and after a few more years' work with the normal school, 
hope to have all schools supplied with well-qualified teach- 

In addition we plan to have in large centers intermediate 
schools to receive those who have finished the primary 
course. For the present we will begin with such a large 
day-school in Hankow. The schools with trained teachers 
already pay a considerable sum toward their cost, and it 
is calculated that intermediate schools will pay even better. 
It is hoped that boys who have been trained in these schools 
will continue their studies in Boone School. This will 
enable us to raise the grade in the latter school. At pres- 
ent most of its applicants for admission have had abso- 
lutely no proper preparation and must begin at the very 
bottom of the ladder of knowledge. 

The third step in the series is Boone School. This is 
already doing effective work and increases in efficiency 
each year. But it urgently needs more land, more build- 



ings, a larger staff, and good equipment. Given these, it 
will not only soon furnish most of its running expenses, 
but will become a power for good in molding the young 
men of Central China. 

This educational scheme refers only to boys. The de- 
mand for the education of girls, though growing, is still 
very small, and we have always been short of women to 
carry it on. But it is hoped that, in time, we may have a 
somewhat similar scheme for girls. 

Crowning our educational course I should like to see the 
divinity school. The bulk of our Chinese clergy must be 
educated men who can lead their people. They should be 
educated, not in remote solitude, but in close contact with 
the most vigorously living and thinking institution in this 
neighborhood — the school. In this way we hope to keep 
them alert and practical. We have a suitable building for 
the purpose. 

3. Medical 

We already have three hospitals in operation, one each 
for men and women in Wuchang, where there are two 
others connected with other missions, and one, the only 
one, in Nganking, the capital of Nganhuei province. We 
wish to add to our medical staff so as to have two doctors 
for each isolated hospital, and three where two hospitals 
are together, as in Wuchang. It is expected that such an 
increase will not only provide uninterrupted medical atten- 
tion, when one physician is absent on furlough or vacation, 
but will permit local extension of dispensary work and the 
training of Chinese students. 

We wish also to establish hospitals in Kiukiang and 
Shasi. The latter has no qualified physician and no hos- 
pital, properly so called. The former has a hospital for 
women, manned (?) by two American-educated Chinese 
young ladies, and a small general hospital, which has no 
permanently resident physician. Both are treaty-ports 


and important places. We have as yet no foreign workers 
in these places. Our native work, however, is strong in 
Shasi and promising in Kiukiang. 

We make no apology for the bigness of our plans. The 
mission has passed the day of small things, the experi- 
mental stage. We have found our feet and ask permission 
to advance. Of the eight cities for which we ask men or 
money, four are provincial capitals, and all but one are, or 
will soon be, treaty-ports. That means that our work will 
tell on foreigners as well as natives. We are trying to 
make our position secure by seizing strategic points and 
holding them effectively. Whether we do so or not depend? 
on the Home Church. 

Hankow, February 2, 1903. 
Mr. Ehett : 

In addition to anti-foreign feeling, there is another 
sentiment to be reckoned with. There is strong hatred of 
the dynasty — the Manchus. For many decades there have 
been secret societies which aimed at its overthrow. The 
government has vainly tried to uproot them, but it cannot. 
Under such a form of government as this a passion for 
secret plotting is developed. And these secret societies are 
always ready to seize an opportunity to accomplish their 
ends. Their ranks have probably been largely increased 
since the suppression and outlawing of the Keform Party 
in 1898. The influence of the latter has been working on 
the minds of the young men all over the empire. Some 
of the leaders are, no doubt, concealed in the country. At 
all events, they are flooding the country with literature 
which is directed against the government and much of 
which is said to be entirely anarchistic in tone. Their base 
of operations seems to be Japan. They are clever, plau- 
sible, and seem to be unscrupulous, and it is believed that 
they are prepared to join forces with any of the disaffected, 
no matter what their principles are. 

Meanwhile we keep the even tenor of our way. Nothing 



seems to be immediately threatening, so we are not 
alarmed. We are extending our work and planning it for 
the rest of our lifetime and beyond. We cannot work in 
any other way. But we realize that a catastrophe might 
come with short warning. 

From the "Church" (Boston) 

The backbone of our work is our native deacons. You 
cannot imagine how powerless, even after years of experi- 
ence, a foreigner is among the Chinese, unless he has faith- 
ful native assistants. The language, social and business 
customs, and modes of reasoning of the Chinese are so 
different from our own, and so intricate, that both mer- 
chant and missionary must depend largely on natives. So 
the deacons are more than backbone: they are eyes, ears, 
mouth, hands, and feet to the work. There are four of 
them connected with this place, three in Hankow and one 
in the country at Han-clr'uan. Each has his congregation 
and chapel. The chapel is in most cases simply a rented 
Chinese house, always unprotected from heat and cold, and 
sometimes even from rain and snow. The deacon's resi- 
dence is usually in the same building. 

Hankow, February 15, 1903. 
My dear Family : 

The most striking development is in the schools, which 
grow more crowded each year. Yesterday Mr. Roots and 
Miss Carter examined the applicants for admission to the 
Cathedral Choir School. We had nine vacancies and about 
thirty candidates. They were the pick of nearly one hun- 
dred and fifty day-school boys. They were all Christians, 
and some had come sixty miles for the examination. They 
were examined not only on the ordinary school subjects, 
but also in singing and cleanliness. The cause of this rush 


for the Choir School is that this year we are sending nine 
of the largest boys to Boone School, or to the Wuchang 
Hospital to help the doctor. This leaves us with nine 
vacancies and also advertises to our people the splendid 
opportunity that lies before those who are accepted. If the 
best boys are to be sent to Boone School from time to time, 
almost every parent will want to get his boy into the Choir 

We have bought the new land that we wanted for Boone 
School, and a new building is about to be begun, so that 
we may be able to accommodate more boys and be in a 
position to give them better opportunities to learn. We 
will start a collegiate department next autumn, but at 
present will have to use the Divinity School to house the 
college students. There is no lack of boys. We already 
have over fifty waiting, and no vacancies. If the Church 
would only help us ! If rich people could only go with me 
and see what magnificent opportunities there are through- 
out this district for putting their money to the best use, I 
am sure they could not resist the inclination to give. But 
I cannot get them within ten thousand miles of the work. 
Can't some of you buttonhole a millionaire for a ten-thou- 
sand-dollar special? 

The family here is in pretty good condition. I am some- 
what better, but living chiefly on mushes, and such-like 
uninspiring dishes. 

Hankow, March 1, 1903. 
Mr. John W. Wood : 

I may have written you something about the expansion 
of Boone School. It has been unavoidable. Shanghai is 
too far away and the trip and living expenses too much to 
enable us to send many of our boys to St. John's College. 
The demand for higher education in Wuchang and Han- 
kow has so increased that if we do not supply the demand, 
some other mission will step in and do it, and so rob us of 
the primacy in educational matters which we have labored 



so hard and so successfully to maintain. We have bought 
land and prepared to start a collegiate department (in 
addition to adding a large building to the school depart- 
ment), without receiving a cent from the Church at home. 

Hankow, March 1, 1903. 
My dear Family : 

Not much has happened lately beyond the usual routine. 
I improved a good deal in health a week or two ago, but 
have fallen back somewhat, and now my chief food is 
farina and such things. Still I can do my work fairly 

The great demand now is for education. We have 
stretched the accommodations of Boone School so far that 
Mr. Jackson has been obliged to take some of the boys into 
his own house to live. We have begged for money for new 
buildings, but have not received a cent from home. The 
heathen about us have been more generous, and have con- 
tributed enough to enable us to start an additional build- 
ing. But even that does not begin to be enough. Our 
work is continually hampered by this lack of funds. We 
baptized one hundred and nine last quarter, as against 
thirty-nine for the same quarter of the preceding year. 

Hankow, March 15, 1903. 
My dear Mr. Rhett : 

When I was put in charge of this field the work had 
recently been largely extended and showed many signs of 
growth ; but the growth was so new that there had not been 
time for the organization that such development sooner or 
later demands if it is to continue. So a large part of my 
time has been spent in gathering together the loose ends 
that I found everywhere, and trying to weave them into a 
single rope. The ends of my district are nearly eight 
hundred miles apart, and it is not easy to unify and har- 



monize so widely separated members. Still I can report 
decided progress. One of the questions that is now calling 
for settlement is that of the salaries of native workers. We 
pay most of our workers in silver, and that article has been 
so steadily depreciating in value that a Mexican dollar is 
now worth only about eight hundred brass cash, whereas 
it was worth ten hundred and seventy when I came out. 
In addition to this, the cost of almost all articles of food 
and clothing has increased greatly. So our workers are 
suffering and ask for a raise. This question is only one out 
of many that require a great deal of time and thought to 
settle. Charlotte and the children are well again, except 
for colds. I am not well, but keep my strength very well 
considering what scant diet I am reduced to. 

Hankow, March 22, 1903. 
My dear Family : 

We are having a great deal of trouble in getting our 
paper printed. After two or three weeks we have had a 
proof of the first page only. It was very amusing to see 
the first corrected proof. The printer had not understood 
the meaning of the various remarks addressed to him on 
the margin of the first corrected proof and had printed 
them all in the second, so that "Kemarks to the printer" 
and other irrelevant matter appeared at intervals over the 
page. However, we have hopes of succeeding ultimately. 
I am not quite decided whether I shall be able to make my 
visitations this spring or not. The doctor discourages my 
going, and at present it is impossible, as I cannot get the 
food I need on the boats. However, I may be able to go 
after Easter. If I keep the ground I have gained, I think 
I shall probably carry out the latter plan. 

March 28, 1903. 
A considerable part of the increase asked for is due to 
the fact that the prayers and work of many years are 



beginning to tell in the increase of trained and tested 
workers, and that their work is justifying the time and 
money spent on them. There never was a more hopeful 
outlook, so far as the mission workers are concerned, and 
the work done is incomparably more thorough and substan- 
tial than ever before. — Hankow Appropriation Estimate. 

Hankow, Easter day, 1903. 
My dear Family : 

I get most encouraging reports from the entire field. 
Our methods are stricter and the standard higher each 
year, but the number of catechumens seems to be steadily 
increasing. They are better taught, more devout than 
before; we have a far better hold on entire families than 
before. There is a large increase in all our schools, too. 

Hankow, April 29, 1903. 
The Rev. Joshua Kimber : 

Thanks for your solicitude about my health. I am bet- 
ter, though by no means well. My visitation trips have 
been delayed, but I have been or will go to all the large 
places. I am distressed that I have most positive orders 
from various doctors to spend the summer out of Hankow. 
I admit the wisdom of the decree and bow before it, though 
with great reluctance. 

Hankow, May 25, 1903. 
Mr. John W. Wood : 

Everywhere throughout the mission is the thrill of life. 
I am constantly having suggestions from workers who wish 
to open something new or push the old work farther. Our 
newly opened stations, Kiukiang, T'ai hu, Changsha, and 
Chin tseo, are all in most promising condition and show 
splendid growth. (No doubt you will soon receive some- 
thing from Mr. and Mrs. Roots about their recent trip to 
Changsha and the impression it made on them.) 

1 233 n 


I can recall only one station which shows no special 
advance, but rather the reverse, and that is Chiao Wei. 
Confirmations are completed and show an increase of 
twenty-five per cent. Baptisms, too, will be more than last 
year, while the attendance at day-schools has largely in- 
creased. Congregations almost everywhere are better than 
ever. If I understand the purpose of the Church at home, 
this is what she desires. This is what I am sent to culti- 
vate. As this is my conception of my duty, I have not felt 
called upon to restrict this growth or to dampen this 
ardor of the workers. I have everywhere advised careful 
economy, but I have not felt justified in clipping wings for 
economy's sake. A work that is growing must expand as 
the spirit of life within it compels. The spirit breatheth 
where it listeth, and, if told to wait until the Board ap- 
proves, may take its flight, not to return. I do not think 
we are likely to run over the appropriation, but we are sure 
to come pretty near the limit. However, I don't think the 
Church ever got better value for her money. 

I have an anecdote for you, told to one of us by a lady — 
a Mrs. Brewster — who witnessed and heard it. She was 
traveling on the Yang-tse with an anti-missionary steamer 
captain, a man famous for his vaporings on the subject. 
"I have been twenty-five years on this river, and I have 
never seen a Chinese Christian." "Captain," replied one 
of his officers who was sitting at table with them, "the man 
behind you, who is serving you now, is a Chinese Chris- 
tian." Nothing further heard from the captain during 
that meal. 

Hankow, June 2, 1903. 
My dear Family : 

I reached home from my up-river trip at 3 a.m. on Sun- 
day, the twenty-fourth. Of course I was in worse condition 
than when I left, but I soon straightened out and am now 
feeling pretty well. I find that sleeping late and taking 
egg-nog three times a day between meals has done for me 



what all the medicines were powerless to do. My work is 
so wide that I find it very hard to write about it. 

Hankow, June 3, 1903. 
Mr. John W. Wood : 

It is delightful to have your sympathy, and so heartily 
expressed, in regard to our unauthorized expansion educa- 
tionally. As I wrote you about a week ago, I have no heart 
for clipping wings. Now is our opportunity. I consider 
myself here for the special purpose of taking advantage of 
it. We are growing in every direction, and I will fight hard 
before I cut off the new shoots that are so promising. I 
am sorry that I did not think of including the salaries of 
two new men in my appropriation estimates. That is one 
of the tricks that I had not learned. 

I hope you have not forgotten your promise to visit us. 
We will show you "piles" of things. You shall see the 
wheels go round. Don't put off the trip too long. Remem- 
ber, I expect to go home in about a year to make my bow 
to the House of Bishops and the Home Church. I expect 
to be away from here about six months. Roots will be at 
home at the same time. So look out for tornadoes at the 
corner of Fourth Avenue and Twenty-second Street. 
When two enthusiastic members of the Hankow Mission 
meet a secretary, I fear that either money or blood must 

Hankow, June 7, 1903. 
My dear Family : 

We are continually extending, but are limited in money 
and workers. In the last three months we have started 
three schools for girls, which are flourishing, and have just 
begun another for boys, making eight in Hankow alone. 
Yesterday a man employed in a Chinese bank brought his 
boy, with the money for fees, to one of the teachers and 
asked to have him received. He was told that twenty-four 

[235 3 


boys were already in a room designed for only twenty. 
"Well," he said, "if you have n't room to take him into the 
regular class, let him sit here and listen. He has been 
studying in the ordinary Chinese schools for years and 
cannot explain a single word he has been taught." What 
can we do against such determination? He is now the 
twenty-fifth. Most of our Hankow schools are crowded in 
the same way, simply because we cannot resist the deter- 
mination of the parents. 

The following is taken from an early issue of the "Bul- 
letin" : 

At Changsha our mission is at last established in a 
larger and more suitable house which was rented cheap, 
like the one in Kiukiang, because it was haunted. Who 
could wish harm to those beneficent spirits who help our 
work by lowering rents ? 

There are some ten or twelve adherents who long since 
fulfilled the time required for the catechumenate and are 
very anxious to be allowed to take the first step toward 
baptism. No one has yet been admitted, and their admis- 
sion is made conditional on their bringing their families 
with them. Some of them have lately complained that 
they were not allowed to contribute toward Church ex- 
penses, while adherents in other missions were. The rea- 
son for this was that we feared that, in the ignorance of 
their first approach, they would think that gifts to the 
Church implied an obligation on its part of help in their 
private troubles with officials or each other. This cruel 
deprivation will cease when they are admitted catechumens. 

Many of those who have shown interest in the Gospel 
message have met with the usual persecution from friends 
and family. A lad of eighteen named Wu, the son of a 
widow, was seized by relatives who insisted that his mind 
had been unsettled by the "mih yoh," or bewitching drug, 
which they think is administered to all adherents to insure 



docility and submission. An emetic was successfully given, 
and they expressed their satisfaction by saying, "Now he 
will be all right." Unfortunately for their hopes, the boy 
continued his visits to the chapel, and even induced a 
brother to go with him. Finally the mother was satisfied 
that no harm was coming to them, and withdrew her op- 

An older man, named Sen, who enjoyed the sobriquet of 
"Whiskers," had a recently married son living about 
twenty miles away. He begged him to visit the old home, 
but the son, hearing that the father had connected himself 
with the Church, refused to recognize the old man as his 
father or to visit him. He even went so far as to seize 
some of his land. 

Another, named Yu, the son of a military official, was 
faithful in attendance at services until some one poisoned 
the minds of the women of the family by assuring them 
that, after a man entered the Christian Church, all domes- 
tic and social relationships were dissolved and a man's 
family were no more to him than any outsider. On hear- 
ing this, they became greatly alarmed and made Yu's life 
so miserable that he fled from home. The family sought 
for him in vain. After some days he visited the chapel, 
and the Chinese priest exhorted him to return and bear his 
witness to the falsity of these calumnies in his own home, 
where his testimony would have most weight. He agreed, 
and, at last reports, was again living at home. 

Sometime ago the streets of Changsha were placarded 
with anonymous yellow posters warning women against 
foot-binding, and saying that calamities were at hand from 
which those who bound their feet would find it hard to 
flee. It is not known who adopted this method of pleading 
for natural feet. It is certain, however, that it produced 
quite a sensation. 

C237 3 


Hankow, June 14, 1903. 
My dear Family : 

Tehsen's mania now is for collecting tortoises and frogs, 
which he keeps in a big earthen vessel of water in the back 
yard. He called me this afternoon to see "two beautiful 
frogs, as long as that." He went off this afternoon with 
the Koosnetzoff boys (Eussian father and German mother) 
and caught them. I told him that I did not want him to 
go to play with the boys on Sunday. He replied in the 
most earnest way, "But, father, if I had n't gone, I would 
n't have got the frogs." 

I am proud of all my family, and they give me a great 
deal of happiness. The children are stubborn, but very 
winning and lovable. We are looking forward with keen- 
est anticipation to bringing them home. Only about a year 
more now. 

Kuling, July 5, 1903. 
My dear Family : 

Yesterday was the glorious Fourth. The Americans 
here like to keep it faithfully, especially on account of the 
children who are brought up away from all the associations 
which go to make good citizens. So meetings are held, 
committees appointed, and arrangements to hold the 
celebration at our house and the adjoining mission bun- 
galow put into action. 

I can't go into details of the way the houses were fixed. 
Speeches and music were given on the veranda of the mis- 
sion bungalow, and refreshments served in our house and 
on our veranda. Suffice it to say that it was the biggest 
thing ever undertaken in Kuling, and the most successful. 
The affair caused a good deal of inconvenience and hard 
work. But we think it was worth while. It was an oppor- 
tunity to render a service to the public and, especially, to 
the Americans, and it puts the mission and ourselves on an 
advantageous footing with them. Of course Charlotte 

[238 3 


shone, as she always does where good sense, good manage- 
ment, and good looks come into play. 

Kuling, July 26, 1903. 
I am, as you will see from the heading of this letter, in 
Kuling, where my doctor has ordered me to spend the 
summer. I was quite unwell all winter and most of the 
spring, so it was feared that if I spent the summer in the 
heat below, I would be liable to all sorts of deadly diseases. 
There was nothing for me to do but yield, so I have prac- 
tically moved my office up here and am conducting busi- 
ness from the new stand. It is never very hot here, there 
are plenty of people, some six or seven hundred, and walks, 
tennis, and other innocent amusements. So it is a fine 
place to combine work with pleasure. A large part of the 
people are missionaries, but there are not a few business 
people from different places on the river. 

Kuling, July 26, 1903. 
My dear Family : 

Even though I am supposed to be taking a summer 
vacation, I am fairly busy and have not had much time 
for writing to you of late. We are already making our 
plans for going home, and expect to be in the United States 
this time next year. We will probably be away from here 
not longer than seven months. 

We are having a pleasant summer, have a great many 
pleasant acquaintances and some very warm friends. One 
of the ladies, a very clever and nice woman, but a little 
inclined to say sharp things occasionally, asked Charlotte 
how she managed to have so many friends. Part of the 
explanation is that she uses her tongue very judiciously. 

I suppose the American papers are keeping up their 
stories of the alarming condition of China. Things seem 
very quiet in this region. The river is high and flooding 



some districts; secret societies are said to be active and 
planning an uprising against the officials; etc. But these 
are yearly events, and do not necessarily mean anything. 
All our people are well and the work is going on quietly. I 
am making out my yearly reports, and find progress all 
along the line. 

Kuling, August 2, 1903. 
Mr. John W. Wood : 

It is a quiet Sunday afternoon, and I will take advantage 
of it to start a letter to you, not knowing when I shall be 
able to finish it. I have been with my family for five weeks 
and am feeling quite well again. I should like to return 
to my post in Hankow now, but feel it is wiser to obey the 
doctors — so long, at least, as no urgent business calls me 
down and I can do my work as well here as there. More- 
over, I feel that I have special and very important work 
here. I have many friends among the people here, chiefly 
missionaries, and can feel friendships, both personal and 
toward the mission, growing stronger. The feeling of dis- 
satisfaction with our divided Christendom grows stronger, 
too, from year to year, both in my own heart and all around 
me. I hear of many more hopes for unity than ever before. 
The way is by no means clear, but we are drawing closer 
one to another, and I wonder if God may not have sent me 
here for a longer stay than usual in order to help on, if 
only a mite, the great movement in which I believe so 
fully. So I am not impatient. 

Ingleside, Kuling, August 16, 1903. 
My dear Family : 

We are having the most enjoyable summer we have ever 
spent here. This is partly because we are together more 
than ever before, and I have been with Charlotte both on 
her birthday and our wedding-day, a thing which has often 



been impossible. In addition to this, we are all pretty 
well. Then we have more friends and acquaintances than 
before, and some of these friendships are very precious to 
us. This year, too, I have made a feature of a weekly meet- 
ing of all the men of our mission. They dine here on 
Tuesday evening, and we spend the time after dinner in 
discussing whatever comes up. This has been very inter- 
esting and helpful, especially to the new and the isolated 
ones, as it has been a means of revealing us to each other, 
and of spreading more widely the real spirit of the mission. 
The men who are almost or entirely alone in their stations 
have no chance to keep up with the progress of thought 
among the others, and the new men have never learned. 
Last Thursday we got on the subject of Church unity and 
our attitude to other missions. It was surprising and 
refreshing to see how every shade of churchmanship was at 
one with others in taking a broad view of the subject. One 
of the more isolated men was astonished and delighted at 
the revelation of the general sentiment of the mission. I 
am sure the summer here has been an education to many 
of us. 

I have been much struck with the wide-spread desire 
among the missionaries here for a nearer approach to each 
other, a vague longing for Church unity. So, after talking 
with a number of the older men, all of whom heartily 
agreed with me, I am having the following promise printed 
on cards which are to be given to those who want them, 
signed and retained by the signer. 

[The form of the cards was as follows: — Editor.] 

League of Prayer for the Unity of God's People 

Believing that the Church of Christ has not that unity 
for which Christ prayed, and without attempting to state 
either the form which it should take or the manner of real- 
izing it, I hereby promise to endeavor to pray daily that 


God will accomplish in His Church such unity as is agree- 
able to His holy will. 


(This card is to be retained by the signer.) 

You will see that the promise is made so broad as to 
include all except those who are firmly opposed to any 
form of Church unity. There are such, and it is to avoid 
the criticism and unfriendly feeling which some of these 
may raise that we expect to have, for the present at least, 
no meetings, no organization, not even a list of those who 
unite in the prayer. The people of Kuling are a very 
prayerful lot, and, if they can be united in prayer for a 
common object until they meet again, I believe they will 
be much nearer to each other. 

Lot 8, Kuling, September 3, 1903. 
My dear Father: 

I am laid up with a sprained ankle, obtained on the 
tennis-court, and only able to hobble about on crutches. 
It is not serious, but requires rather a long rest. 

The enforced quiet has given me an oj)portunity to finish 
my yearly report to the Board, which ought to have gone 
sometime ago. 

I am hoping to be able to go down from here in about 
two weeks, and will be very glad to be home again, though 
the summer here has been a very pleasant one. I go to 
Shanghai for the conference of Anglican bishops of China 
and Corea on October 16. You will have noticed the dates 
of my own conference in the "Bulletin." 

Lot 8, Kuling, September 20, 1903. 
My dear Family : 

Another Sunday night has come, the last, I hope, that I 
will spend in Kuling for nearly two years. We should 
have gone down before this, but my ankle was so slow 


in recovering that it did not seem wise. I am still on 
crutches, though I can walk a few steps in the house with- 
out them. We are planning to go down Friday morning. 

Preachers are growing scarce here now, as so many 
people have gone down. So I was asked to preach again 
this evening in the Kuling Chapel. I hobbled down on 
crutches, but managed to take the service without using 
them. As we were coming home, I painfully crawling up- 
hill, Tehsen carrying the lantern for me, he surprised me 
very much by saying, "I enjoyed your sermon very much 
this evening, Father." I don't know what he meant by it, 
as Charlotte says he was making faces and going through 
the motion of diving most of the time I was preaching. 

During the last hymn, which was sung to rather a sad 
tune, Meimei whispered to her mother: "I can't stand it, 
Mother." "Can't stand what ?" "The singing." Looking 
down, she saw that the little one was almost in tears. It 
was necessary to cover her ears to enable her to get through 
the rest of the service. Something about the tune seemed 
really to distress her. 

To-night, for the first time, we let the two children take 
supper with us, instead of in their room. At the table 
Meimei asked if I knew what had happened in church. I 
professed ignorance, and she worked her eyes in such a way 
as to suggest an effort to keep back tears. I asked why she 
had cried. She replied: "Because the music nauseated 

I mentioned in my last report that a transition was 
being made in the school between the old Chinese method 
of arbitrary punishment by any teacher and the foreign 
one of carefully considered discipline administered by the 
rector only. The change was misunderstood and opposed 
by almost all the Chinese, who declared that morals and 
discipline had been thrown to the dogs. Experience hith- 
erto indicates a real improvement as a result of the change. 
It is true that more independence and self-respect have 
been developed, and the genesis of these is apt to be 



stormy. But, in clue proportion, they are priceless, the 
foundation of all true character and to be had at any price. 

One of the indications of improvement in the school is 
the decline of the old desire to rush away into business as 
soon as the pupils know enough English to converse. Nine 
out of the present highest class wish to pursue their studies 
further. Four of these are Christians, all of whom, it is 
understood, are looking forward to Church work, and at 
least two to the ministry. It is necessary to carry these 
boys further, and, to this end, the beginning of a collegiate 
course is to be made this autumn. We have no proper col- 
lege building as yet. 

(1) We must have the best possible education for our 
ministry, if it is to grapple with the new China. Such an 
education, unless given in this part of China, is liable to 
unfit men for work here. [If sent to Shanghai, for in- 
stance. — Editor.] (2) We can get no more power- 
ful grip on the moral and religious development of this 
neighborhood than through the influence of such an insti- 
tution. Chinese government colleges do not, as a rule, 
amount to much, and are already exciting distrust in the 
minds of their promoters. This is our opportunity to 
strike our roots deep. (3) This Church has had a prac- 
tically undisputed lead in education in this neighborhood 
for many years. We cannot afford to lose it. It is one of 
our most valuable assets, (-i) The demand for the educa- 
tion we give is strong and grows each year. 

No heathen girl is required to unbind, but any Christian 
girl who binds her feet is required to pay full tuition fees, 
like the heathen, instead of the largely reduced rates 
usually granted to Christians. In other words, the Chris- 
tians must show themselves different from, and superior to, 
others; the sentiment of the school must be markedly 
Christian. Six girls left the school on account of this rule, 
two of whom, however, returned later. The unbinding of 
the feet led to increased exercise and marked improvement 
in the general health of the girls. 



Another wise rule of the school is that Christian girls 
who are betrothed to heathen men will not be received. 
We have a general Church rule against such betrothals, 
but sometimes the parents disregard it in view of an espe- 
cially promising match. The reason of the rule is that a 
Christian woman, married to a heathen, is in most cases 
practically thrown away. She is forced to deny her faith, 
and we are unwilling to encourage so-called Christian 
parents in so flagrant a disregard of the spiritual welfare 
of their daughters. The enforcement of this rule some- 
times seems an undue hardship to the girl, but its general 
effect is so salutary that we hold to it. 

We have worked this year with the idea that we are sent 
to spread the kingdom of Christ — with appropriations, if 
we can get them ; if not, without. So, instead of curtailing 
work for which no funds were provided, I have encouraged 
all that seemed to me wisely planned and soundly carried 
out. I have no heart for clipping wings. Not only has 
none of the work been dropped for which appropriations 
were refused, but we have extended, in every direction, 
more widely, I believe, than in any previous year of our 
history, and there is a promise of yet better things to 


"%l 3 toill . . •" 

"ietCljp peace rule ottr spirits tfjroug;!) all tlje trial of 
our toantna; powers. Cake from tts all fear of Ueatl), 
tljat, tottl) fflaU fjearts at rest in ©bee, toe map atoatt 
C&p toill concerning; us." 



On the twenty-fifth of September the family left Kuling 
for Hankow, and from there, on October 4, Bishop Ingle 
wrote outlining his immediate plans. 

Hankow, October 4, 1903. 
I still limp and am unable to walk more than a short 
distance. I expect to leave on Thursday for Wuhu, whence 
I go to visit the country stations near there. From there 
I go to Shanghai to attend the conference of Anglican 
bishops. Then I come up-river to Nganking, where I visit 
an interior station. Then to Hankow for a conference of 
native clergy. Then to visit all the up-river stations to the 
west of Hankow. Then in January I have a conference of 
catechists, and in February one for foreign workers. I am 
feeling so much better now that I hope to be able to do all 
I have planned. 

About half of this program he was able to carry out, but 
for the rest the God of his will made other plans. 

In October, 1903, Bishop Ingle attended his first con- 
ference of the Anglican bishops of China and Corea. 


. • 



• I— < 



•i— i 









b£ £ 

o " 

"IF I WILL . . » 

Young and vigorous, with a wisdom and insight beyond 
his years, he deeply impressed his fellow-bishops with his 
powerful personality. 

One bishop wrote to Mr. Warren : "Bishop Ingle's speech 
drew all our hearts to him by its tone of spirituality and 
brotherly love." 

Eeturning from this conference, which was held in 
Shanghai, he stopped to make his autumn visitation in 
Nganking, an important center of mission work, and also 
to visit Taihu, a new and promising out-station. 

In speaking of this trip, one of his friends wrote from 
Hankow under date of November 4, 1903: 

"Bishop Ingle has just returned from his visitation of 
various mission stations, and looks very well, although he 
had some pretty rough experiences. They had to put up 
at Chinese inns all the way, which, he says, were absolutely 
filthy in every respect. As it was cold, and these inns are 
open on one side to the weather, they slept in all the 
clothes they could get on — three sets of underclothes, their 
ordinary suits, overcoats, and waterproofs. They had to 
carry their bedding with them, and spread it down on the 
cleanest (?) place they could find, and try to rest, with all 
sorts of insects, all sorts of noises, all sorts of smells, and 
very cold besides. They carried what food they could, but 
could not even get any clean vessel to cook it in, and of 
course no boiled water; so they did not drink any at all. 
One day they found that the coolie who was carrying their 
basket of provisions had put his dirty shoes in on top of a 
half-opened can of butter and a can of jam, and all the dirt 
from the shoes had joggled down into them, so that was 
the end of those. Finally, they got hold of some peanuts 
and Chinese sweet potatoes, which they roasted and then 
subsisted on those. Then once, when out on a lake, they 
were all nearly upset in the middle of it, as a hard blow 
came up, and these Chinese know very little about manag- 
ing their clumsy boats." [The Chinese are fine sailors and 
manage their boats with skill. — Editor.] 



The Rev. L. H. Roots, now Bishop of Hankow, in a let- 
ter to the Board of Missions, November 19, 1903, says : 

"Bishop Ingle has fever, and it has continued so high 
for the past ten days that Dr. Thomson says he will be two 
weeks more, and probably three weeks, in bed with it. This 
comes on top of all the trouble, of which you have heard 
more or less ever since he returned from his furlough, and 
I write, at the doctor's suggestion, to let you know that the 
doctor thinks if he recovers favorably from this attack and 
intends to do any work at the General Convention time, he 
should leave China and have a good rest in America before 
the Convention. It may be necessary to do something 
before next spring, but the doctor now thinks that in any 
case he should leave China in April at latest. This will 
be a very bitter pill to the bishop, and I know you will 
sympathize with him in having to take it. There may be 
some way of escape, and I still hope dimly that there may 
be, but I continue to feel very anxious about him, and 
especially to feel how terrible would be the loss to the whole 
Church in China if for any reason he should have to be 
withdrawn for a long period. And my only hope of pre- 
serving him is that he may take a really good and adequate 
rest soon. I am sorry to be writing to you again in this 
strain, but it seems to be the only right thing to do, for 
you ought to know how matters stand, and no one else is 
likely to let you know if I do not. 

"The conference of the Chinese clergy, of which you 
have seen notice in the 'Bulletin,' closed its sessions the first 
of this week. Poor Bishop Ingle had to miss it all, except 
what I was allowed to translate to him between the ses- 
sions, for the fever got to the point at which the doctor 
said he must go to bed on the very day the conference 
began. I was delegated to preside at the meetings, and 
nothing since I came to China has given me such confi- 
dence in the stability and power of our work as these 
meetings have done. 

"At the close of the conference, by special request of the 

"IF I WILL . . 


bishop, all the clergy were admitted to the sick-room. The 
bishop's care for their physical comfort, and his thought- 
ful provision for their entertainment, had touched them 
deeply, and his messages in response to the proceedings, as 
reported to him during the first two days, had made them 
feel his grief at not being able to attend, and his burning 
interest in their deliberations. They thanked him with the 
simple sincerity of mutual friends, and wished him a 
speedy recovery. His words to them were few, but full of 
affectionate confidence. 'I feel/ he said, 'that the work 
of the Church is safe in }'our hands. May God bless and 
prosper you all in it.' At this time no one suspected that 
his illness would become serious, yet the anxiety of love 
was written on their faces as they bade him good-by, and 
as they paid their parting respects to Mrs. Ingle, their 
thoughtful hostess." 

There was found among the bishop's papers a letter 
dated Hankow, November 23, 1903, and addressed to the 
corresponding secretary of the Missionary Society. It was 
dictated to Mrs. Ingle from his sick-bed, and is the last 
letter the bishop wrote. It gives just a suggestion of the 
anxieties which had weighed heavily upon him and had 
borne their part in preventing him from regaining his 
health earlier in the year. The sad feature of the subject 
is that these anxieties were largely of a financial character, 
and that the Church at home was abundantly able to re- 
lieve them — if its members had but realized the need. 

"You see I am writing to you by an amanuensis, as I have 
been for two weeks on my back with a sharp attack of 
malaria. You may imagine my grief at having to miss 
every session of my Chinese clergy conference; but there 
was no help for it. Just now my fever is not running very 
high, but is complicated by a painful inflammation of the 
blood-vessels of one leg and a threat of those of the other. 

"This sickness, coming on top of my long-drawn-out ill 



health of last year, has decided the doctor that I ought to 
return home as soon as possible. He has examined me 
and finds me perfectly sound organically, and sees no 
reason why I should not regularly enjoy good health in 
this country. But he does not think I can have it unless 
I first get a good setting up at home. 

"He wants me to go as early as possible — that is, Febru- 
ary or March; but it is exceptionally hard to get away. 
Roots, my right hand, leaves in February. Littell is to 
move over to take his place, and it, will require some little 
time to settle him in it, so that at present it seems impos- 
sible for me to get away until about the first of April. My 
plan is to take my wife and children, at my own expense, 
and go by way of Vancouver and Canada. We may see 
you as we pass through New York, but it is doubtful. 
However, I shall wish to see the Board at the earliest 
possible meeting. Meanwhile, will you please lay my plan 
before the Board, and let me know if it has their approval ? 
I hope to return to China the end of next year. 

"As I was saying, it is very hard to leave now, and I hate 
to do it. . . . Then, too, the exchange has hit us pretty 
hard lately, and I do not know how the stations will pull 
through on their already inadequate appropriations. The 
Normal School is being supported by my specials, and 
costs me over $500 a year. It will be hard to support it in 
my absence. The fact that the money which we have been 
saving for years to take my family home with me has had 
to be loaned to Boone School to help it out of a temporary 
difficulty is another complication, as I do not know that I 
can get it paid back so early. Then there is the question 
of more houses for foreigners, and no money to build 
them with. Do you wonder that I feel tied down and help- 
less and fall an easy prey to disease ? Yet these are only a 
few of my anxieties. 

"If the Board would send me a grant of $5000 for a 
dwelling, $1000 to relieve the pressure on Boone School, 
and $500 for the Normal School, I think I could start on 

"IF I WILL . . ." 

a holiday with a mind comparatively at peace. Will you 
please present these three needs to the Board and see if 
they can help in any of them ? 

"I am afraid this letter sounds very gloomy. Lay it to 
the quinine which is hammering away in my head. But, in 
truth, I have not been well since I came back from Amer- 
ica, and I think overwork then explains it. And this is no 
country for regaining lost health." 

"I have not been well since I came back from America, 
and I think overwork then explains it. And this is no 
country for regaining lost health." This was not the re- 
mark of self-pity. 1 It was rather the sober reflection of 
one who felt that he should pass on his experience for the 
benefit of others. In conversation he had also said that 
while in America he did not seem to be over-tired, but he 
simply failed to lay up the store of reserve strength needed 
to meet the demands of a missionary's life in China. His 
election to the episcopate found him run down, and he took 
no vacation whatever, but plunged into all the detail of his 
new duties the very next day after his consecration. By 
the fall of 1902 he was thoroughly run down, yet he kept 
at his work in spite of illness. Writing to a friend in 
January, 1903, he says: "I am learning many lessons amid 
my new duties. One is that a bishop need never expect to 
rest. I have been quite unwell for more than three months, 
but I have made two visitations and kept up my whole 
work fairly well." 

In accordance with the doctor's orders, he spent a longer 
time than usual among the hills at Ruling the following 
summer, and there he gained some strength, but his work 
was almost as heavy as it had been in Hankow, and he 
returned at the end of September, far from strong. It is 
impossible to say how far this condition affected the issue 
of his last illness. The final stages of the disease were cer- 

i This account of the bishop 's last illness and death was written 
by Mrs. Roots, wife of the Bishop of Hankow. 



taiiily those of typhoid septicemia, which might have been 
fatal under more favorable conditions. But we know that 
he worked unremittingly till the last minute. Eeturning 
from Nganking on All Saints' day, he worked on in spite 
of some fever and a severe and constant headache, yielding 
at last only on the evening of Sunday, November 8, after 
delivering the charge at the first meeting of the conference 
of Chinese clergy in the cathedral at the afternoon service. 
After this service he was sitting at the table with the four- 
teen Chinese clergymen who dined at his house that even- 
ing, when the doctor came in, and he left the table, saying 
that if the doctor thought best he would now yield himself 
to orders. After careful examination, the doctor's verdict 
being that his fever was too serious to be trifled with, he 
sat for a few minutes longer with the clergy and then went 
to bed. 

For the first two days of the clergy conference he was 
able to hear a translation of the proceedings after each 
session, but as this seemed to affect his fever unfavorably, 
he had to give it up and abandon all efforts to transact 
ordinary business. His last letter to America was dictated 
to his wife on the twenty-third of November. On Thanks- 
giving day, the twenty-sixth, Dr. Thomson sent for Dr. 
Borland to come in consultation. The first symptoms of 
an immediate crisis appeared on Monday afternoon, and on 
Tuesday Dr. S. E. Hodge, an old and trusted friend, was 
also called in consultation. The need of a doctor's con- 
stant presence with the patient making too great a demand 
on the strength of Dr. Borland, who had been in attend- 
ance with little chance of rest since the twenty-sixth, Dr. 
Woodward was telegraphed for on Wednesday night, and 
arrived from Nganking on Friday morning. All that 
human skill could do was done. The devotion and skill 
and sympathy of Dr. Thomson added yet more to our 
gratitude for his years of inestimable service to the mis- 
sion, our confidence in his ability as a physician, and our 
esteem and love for him as a friend. Dr. Borland was with 


"IF I WILL . . » 

the patient day and night, with the exception of a few 
hours, throughout the last week, and won from all who 
saw him in those days gratitude and affection and trust 
which cannot be easily shaken and can never be forgotten. 
Indeed, the faith and love which shone through the pain 
and sorrow of the sick-room, especially after the illness 
became critical, made the bishop's house into a veritable 
Mount of Transfiguration, the memory of which will re- 
main with those who beheld as a lifelong blessing. 

But the center of inspiration, as of the anxiety, was in 
the beloved sufferer. During the last week his moments of 
clear consciousness were few and brief. The cares of his 
work weighed heavily on his mind, and at the slightest 
suggestion his wandering words would indicate that he was 
trying to plan for the coming conference, or for the rap- 
idly developing work, or for the welfare of individual 
members of the mission. 

Thursday, the third of December, marked a turning- 
point in the thoughts and feelings of both the bishop and 
those who attended him. Since the crisis on Monday, the 
doctors had advised against telling him his condition, for 
fear of making him worse. He had suffered very little pain 
for some time. His last hours seem to have been almost free 
from pain, and he could see no reason for the increased at- 
tention he received. Thursday morning the doctors held a 
long consultation, and decided that it could do no harm to 
tell him plainly how critically ill he was, and to ask him if 
he had any messages for those he might leave behind. Mrs. 
Ingle had been waiting in suspense to hear the doctors' 
opinion, and, when told, bore it with the wonderful forti- 
tude and self-control which she has shown ever since. The 
following extract from a letter written by Mr. Roots on 
the afternoon of the same day records the circumstances 
and some of the words of the bishop's response when told 
of his condition : 

"Mr. Sherman went for the children, and I went in with 
Mrs. Ingle, at her request, to have a prayer at the bishop's 



side. We leaned over him, and he seemed incredulous at 
first, but answered her appeal at last, and said that on the 
spur of the moment he had nothing to say. So we kneeled 
and prayed, Mrs. Ingle repeating each petition after me; 
and when we had finished he himself began to pray, in the 
same clear, steady voice we know so well. Every sentence 
was clear and coherent. He prayed God to look in mercy 
on the past, and to use to His glory all the efforts put forth 
in His name. Then he prayed for his family, that our 
Heavenly Father would be with them always, to be more 
than earthly father could be to them. Then he prayed 
for all those who labored with him in the mission, that we 
might be strong and brave and united, and never fearful or 
halting in the work committed to us. And then he prayed 
for the whole Church, and especially that God would stir 
up His people to support His work more loyally and gen- 
erously, sending, above all, more men and better men, 
men rooted and grounded in the love of Christ, to proclaim 
the Gospel and establish the Church in this great land. 
And all this for Christ's sake. Amen. 

"Oh, I can never forget that prayer! It will be an 
inspiration to me as long as I live — as much so if he con- 
tinues with us as if he is taken away. That was a sacred 
moment, and I only wish all the mission could have been 
present in reality, as they so evidently were to the bishop's 

When Mr. Sherman brought in the children he received 
them with a look of fond recognition, and spoke of how 
much they had grown since he saw them last (they had 
been purposely kept away since the beginning of his ill- 
ness). They were lifted to his side on the bed, and after 
they had kissed him, he looked at them earnestly and said, 
"You children must remember that the older you grow the 
better you are to grow, and that you are to be faithful dis- 
ciples of Jesus Christ." 

After this the whole atmosphere changed. The bishop 
had realized his danger, and by his fervent prayer had 




raised all our hearts into the realm of the trust and peace 
and love of Christ. Now there could be no cloud between 
the patient and those who labored and prayed for him, and 
all took up the struggle for life with new hope, and with 
a new faith which would not be shaken even if God should 
be pleased to take from us our beloved bishop. 

After long deliberation it was at last decided that the 
families in America should be informed, and a cable mes- 
sage was sent at midnight telling them that the bishop was 
critically ill. On Friday he improved slightly, but had a 
bad night, and Saturday morning the doctors' opinion, 
that his condition was rather worse, was telegraphed to 
Bishop Graves. In reply a message was received from 
Shanghai saying, "Coming Poyang. Wire me at ports. — 

At noon Saturday the bishop seemed to be dying, his 
temperature being 106 degrees, and as a last resort he was 
put into an ice-pack. He responded wonderfully to this 
treatment, and also to strong heart stimulants, which two 
means were afterward used frequently, and which gave 
grounds for the telegram sent to Bishop Graves at Chin- 
kiang, Sunday afternoon, saying, "Slightly more hopeful." 
Meantime the secretaries at the Church Missions House 
had evidentlv heard from the families at home of the 
bishop's critical condition, for we received the following 
message from them : "Have heard Ingle seriously ill. You 
have our sympathy and prayers. Spare no expense. Keep 
us well informed." And in response we sent the following 
message at four o'clock: "Your telegram received. There 
is some hope. A favorable change. Graves is expected to 
arrive Wednesday. Communicate contents of this tele- 
gram to all parties interested." 

At eleven o'clock Sunday night he was at least holding 
his own, his heart being weak, but his strength and general 
condition otherwise fairly good. Shortly after midnight 
the heart began to fail rapidly. Dr. Borland, who was on 
watch, called Dr. Woodward, and they agreed that the 



patient could not last long. Accordingly Dr. Thomson 
was sent for, and the three agreed to try another ice-pack, 
in the hope of restoring consciousness before the end. The 
bishop revived wonderfully. Gradually he became semi- 
conscious, and then, in response to the words, "The doctors 
think you are dying. Do you understand?" he replied 
clearly and firmly, "I do." After a moment of effort in 
concentrating his thoughts, and in response to the question 
whether he had any last words for his wife and children, 
he turned to his wife, whom he had previously recognized 
but vaguely, and with a look full of affection took her hand 
and breathed forth his farewell messages to her who had 
been not only the joy of his home, but also his sympathetic 
helper in all the great work of his life, and to the children, 
whom he bade follow their mother in the heavenly way. 
Then, as if suddenly relieved so that he could express the 
great burden of his heart, he began to pray for the Chinese 
Church, the Christians and helpers, and their leaders, the 
Chinese clergy. "Tell them," he said, "that as I have tried 
to serve them in Christ's name while living, so, if God 
pleases to take me away from this world, I pray that even 
my death may be a blessing to them, and help them to 
grow in the faith and love of Christ. May they be pure in 
heart, loving Christ for His own sake, and steadfastly fol- 
low the dictates of conscience, uninfluenced by sordid 
ambitions or selfishness of any kind." At the mention of 
his home and friends, he spoke of the unceasing love and 
devotion of his father and sisters — devotion so great and 
constant that it could never be repaid; and of his grati- 
tude for the care and support and love given by his many 
friends, all these years, in all his work. "And tell my 
father," he said, "that I am only going into the more im- 
mediate presence of my Heavenly Father." 

After a pause, his wife asked him, "Do you feel God's 
presence very near you?" and he answered unhesitatingly 
and clearty, "I do." Then he went on, "I do not feel my 
nearness to heaven as many persons say they do at such a 


"IF I WILL . . ." 

time. I feel my own faults and failings, and that heaver, 
is where God is. I am unworthy to come into His holy 
Presence, but He is here now, and I trust Him, praying 
and believing that He will grant me full forgiveness." 

Though aroused from semi-consciousness only by a su- 
preme effort of the will, and though his voice was so weak 
as to be at times almost inaudible, the messages of undying 
love and holy exhortation were as full and complete, as 
beautifully expressed and clearly analyzed, as if they had 
been the pondered utterances of a conversation with friends 
in his study. These were evidently the every-day thoughts 
of his whole life finding their natural expression in his 

About four o'clock in the morning, after the pack was 
over, and the patient lay quietly in bed, Mr. Sherman ad- 
ministered the holy communion to him. He had again 
lapsed into semi-consciousness, but at the exhortation, 
"Bishop, will you receive the holy communion ?" he opened 
his eyes, and after a moment replied distinctly, "I will/' 
and put his hands together in reverence and prayer. After 
receiving the sacrament, we thought him again uncon- 
scious, but his hands were still folded, and his quavering 
voice could be heard in each "Amen 1 ' and in the Lord's 

After this the bishop appeared to sleep, and till noon he 
seemed to hold his own ; but the heart was too weak, and 
passive congestion of the lungs had already set in. Once 
again, half an hour before the end, he revived for a mo- 
ment, and, smiling, stretched out his arms to his wife and 
embraced her, calling her by name. This was his last 
gleam of consciousness. The heart stopped, artificial 
respiration and all other means proved of no avail, and at 
one o'clock he died, without pain and in peace. 

Just before the end we knelt at the bedside, and Mr. 
Sherman offered the commendatory prayers. Again, after 
the last breath, we knelt together, and Mr. Sherman 
uttered our praise for God's grace and mercy shown in this, 

L257 ] 


His faithful servant, and our prayers for those who must 
mourn for his loss. The devoted wife, through her tears, 
thanked God for the precious gift now yielded back to 
Him, prayed for the work he left behind, for grace to 
bring up the children in the fear and love of God, for 
wisdom to assist in any way she might the work he came to 
China to do, and for God's mercy and comfort to be given 
to the sorrowing father and sisters at home, to those who 
would mourn at her own sorrow, and to his bereaved 
friends all over the world. 

Thus were we comforted and uplifted by herself, who re- 
mained just the same "mother" to us all as of old, giving 
way to no selfish grief, but thinking first and always of 
others, and the great work in behalf of which the precious 
life had been spent. Not for a moment did she hesitate in 
facing the unspeakable sorrow, and taking up the lonely 
responsibilities now thrust upon her. Had she not ac- 
cepted him first of all as God's good gift, and finally 
fought out the question when he was elected, making up 
her mind never to grudge him to the exacting demands 
which fall upon a missionary bishop ? Thus she had rea- 
soned with us during his illness, and therefore spoke 
calmly of the possibility of his death beforehand, never 
gave up hope till the end, and yet afterward showed no 
sign of despair. She had caught the spirit which shone in 
the life and death of the bishop. Dr. Woodward spoke a 
word which we all felt was true when he said of these last 
hours : "I have seen many men die, but never such a death. 
Never have I witnessed such a wonderful manifestation of 
the power of a great soul over bodily weakness as occurred 
when the bishop, by one supreme effort, aroused himself 
from the deepening stupor of approaching death to utter 
his last beautiful messages of farewell and to receive the 
holy communion. I can imagine no more triumphant cul- 
mination of the life-struggle of the spirit against the flesh. 
It was truly the ideal death of a saint of God." 

The message bearing the heavy news to the Board of 


«TT7i T WTT T » 


Missions was intended to convey a suggestion of this note 
of triumphant faith. It read, "Ingle, fervently praying 
for all, died with fever, peacefully, Monday." 

The reply from the Board of Missions showed something 
of the esteem in which our beloved bishop was held by the 
Church at home, and the final words breathed the same 
indomitable spirit as that which animated the bishop him- 
self. It came the next day, with many other messages 
from sympathizing friends, and brought much comfort to 
the stricken mission. It was : "Church with you in sorrow 
at loss great leader. God reigns. Go ahead." 

Under date of St. John's College, December 29, 1903, 
Bishop Graves formally acknowledged charge of the Han- 
kow district, and closed his letter to the Board as follows : 

"This is the second time that I have had to write to the 
secretaries the sad news of the death of a bishop : in 1891, 
when Bishop Boone died; and now with Bishop Ingle. 
Every grave of a leader is another link in the chain that 
binds the Church at home to the Church in China. 

"Two things I must mention before I close. The first 
is that all the mission has come well through this trial. 
They have been helpful and considerate in the sickness, 
gentle and reverent at the death and burial, and when all 
was clone they have shown a quiet and courageous spirit in 
the face of a crushing loss. And specially is this so of 
Mrs. Ingle. Through it all she has thought for others 
rather than herself, and has been marvelously sustained in 
her grief and loneliness. We all feel that she has shown 
herself worthy to be the wife of her husband, and that 
means a great deal. 

"The next thing is that every one is satisfied that the 
bishop received every care and attention that medical skill 
could give. The doctor in charge of the case was Dr. 
Thomson of Hankow, who has been the mission physician 
for fourteen years. All that could be done was done by 
him, and also by Dr. Borland and Dr. Woodward. And 



all in the mission speak in the highest terms of the devo- 
tion of these gentlemen." 

Hankow, China, December 13, 1903. 
My dear Mr. Ingle : 

I am going to take the liberty of writing to you once 
more to tell you about the funeral services which were held 
over your dear son on Thursday last. Several of us said 
that we wished you might have been here — you and the 
other members of the home circle — for it was all so peace- 
ful and victorious in tone, and yet showed so plainly the 
love and respect in which Bishop Ingle was held. 

After the custom of the place, an "express," as they call 
it, was circulated the day before, stating the hours of 
service, place, etc., and the morning of Thursday found 
every flag in the concession and on the boats in the river 
at half-mast. At eight o'clock Bishop Graves celebrated 
holy communion for us in English, and the native clergy 
also came to partake. Poor bishop ! It was all he could do 
to get through the service. He had known your son ever 
since he came to China, and said to me the other day that 
China would never be the same to him again, now that he 
was gone. 

The cathedral had been most beautifully decorated by 
the Chinese, under Miss Clark's direction and with her 
assistance. White is the Chinese mourning color, and, as 
Bishop Ingle had always disliked gloom at funerals, that 
color was the predominating one, though enough black was 
used to satisfy the foreign feeling. The result was severity, 
but cheerfulness in spite of all. The altar hangings were 
black with white fringe, and the white marble cross stood 
out against the black dorsal, with vases of white chrysan- 
themums on either side. The bishop's chair was draped 
with black and had wreaths of white flowers at the head 
and on the fald-stool. 

The bishop lay in his coffin at the foot of the choir-steps, 
a beautiful black pall with white cross covering him, and 


"IF I WILL . . ." 

the wreaths and crosses and palm branches sent by friends 
surrounding him. Mrs. Ingle had given permission for the 
Chinese to see him once more; so on Wednesday the coffin 
was opened and all who wished might see how peaceful and 
free of horror death could be. As dear mother said, as she 
stood looking at him there on Wednesday afternoon, "How 
can any one who has seen this ever fear death again ?" 

He was not left alone. While he was still at his own 
house, one of his foreign clergy was always watching and 
praying beside him; and when he was moved to the ca- 
thedral the Chinese clergy and catechists and other Chris- 
tians were granted the same privilege in turn. 

Thursday was a beautiful day, which made it easier for 
the many who wanted to come to reach here. I was not 
present at the Chinese service at noon, for the children 
were not to go and I stayed with them. But I am told 
that nave and transept were quite full, and even crowded. 
And yet not only during the service, but before and after 
it, one might have heard a pin drop anywhere in that big 
church. This in a Chinese congregation, which always 
contains many children, and is composed, anyway, of peo- 
ple whose religious exercises are always associated with 
noise and nothing like reverence, was most striking. 
Bishop Graves spoke of it especially. 

At half-past two Charlotte Littell, the children, and I 
went over to mother's and found her ready. She was 
trembling and sad-looking, but perfectly controlled; and 
when the children came to her, she put out her hands to 
them, with her old smile. The procession was to march 
from the vestry past the house, around the church; and 
when all was ready, Mr. Boots was to come for us. He did 
so, taking Mrs. Ingle on his arm, Charlotte following with 
the two children, and I last with Mrs. Adams. We passed 
into the church from the vestry, the entire congregation 
rising as we entered, and took our seats in front. It was 
not long before we heard Mr. Sherman's voice beginning 
the sentences, and then the procession moved in, Mr. Wood 


leading as master of ceremonies, then the two choirs — that 
of the cathedral and the one from Boone School — then the 
clergy, native and foreign, with the bishop last. Mr. 
Sherman read the lesson, and then there was a hymn. 

After this came the two addresses. Dr. Griffith John, 
the oldest missionary in these parts, and formerly not 
friendly to our mission, spoke with deep appreciation of 
Bishop Ingle's qualities as a citizen of the community — 
his public spirit, and the gentlemanliness that never failed, 
and with it all his fidelity to religious principles, and as a 
missionary his catholic-mindedness, his clear insight and 
statesmanlike qualities. And with all these qualities, he 
said one could not know the bishop without realizing that 
there was also a piety that was as deep and genuine as the 
man himself. He said that, judging by his past, he for his 
part should say that if Bishop Ingle's life had been spared 
for twenty-five or thirty years of service here, he would 
have made his mark as one of the most famous missionaries 
to China. Dr. John gave a message of sympathy and of 
hope to the mission even in its sorrow. 

Bishop Graves, who followed, was more brief. He said 
he had known the bishop first as a fellow-worker on his 
arrival in China, then as a helper when he was made 
bishop, then as fellow-bishop; and if one word had to be 
chosen to sum up the man and his character, he should 
choose "Loyalty" — loyalty to his colleagues, to his bishop, 
to his church. Both the speakers said that the taking away 
of such a man at the beginning of his work, in the very 
prime of life, was impossible to understand, but that we 
could cling to the sure certainty that God is wisdom and 
God is love, and so fight on without either discouragement 
or bitterness. 

The procession down the aisle was the same as up. As 
we reached the gate there was a pause while the coffin was 
being placed on the gun-carriage (it was still covered by the 
pall), and Mr. Sherman started the hymn "Onward, Chris- 
tian Soldiers !" At once choir and people joined in, and 


"IF I WILL . . » 

the singing continued after we had again started on. Both 
sides of the walk were lined with our own people ; and, out- 
side, the street was packed with an orderly and generally 
quiet crowd. One distinguished many of our Christians 
from both sides of the river among the number, and some 
of them were crying. Mrs. Ingle and the children got into 
a carriage and had its protection on the way to the church- 
yard. Every one else walked, literally following the coflin 
in the middle of the street, and still singing triumphant 
hymns. After "Onward, Christian Soldiers V we sang, 
"The Son of God," and then, as we entered the church- 
yard, "Nearer, my God, to Thee/' It was a very happy 
thought to have the hymns, for it helped as the key-note of 
the whole service, which was "Victory." 

At the grave Bishop Graves read the service, and we all 
sang, "For all the Saints." Then the grave was filled and 
the mound made and covered with the beautiful flowers 
and wreaths that had been in the church. As the last ones 
were being placed upon it, a line of little Choir School boys 
appeared, each bringing a wreath that he had made him- 
self, and put it on with the others. We all stayed till the 
last, and went away with Mrs. Ingle. 

Sincerely yours, 

Eliza Boots. 

Wuchang, December 15, 1903. 
My dear Miss Ingle : 

The Chinese service was in many ways even more im- 
pressive than the English, because it brought home to you 
the contrast between Christianity and heathenism. The 
cathedral was literally packed with Chinese, and from the 
quiet that prevailed before, during, and even for a few 
minutes after the service, you realized how that mass of 
people, many of them just emerging from heathenism, 
were impressed; for it is a most unusual thing in even a 
Christian Chinese congregation. Mr. Wang read the sen- 



tences and Psalms; Mr. Hu, of St. Saviour's Church, 
Wuchang, the lesson ; Mr. Liu, of St. Peter's, Hankow, the 
prayers; and Bishop Graves pronounced the benediction. 
They had the full burial service as well, and Mr. Roots 
made a short address, simply telling them of that wonder- 
ful prayer of the bishop's, when, after praying for his 
loved ones, he then prayed so earnestly for the Chinese 
Church, the clergy, and the Christians, praying that his 
death might be used to strengthen and bless them, and that 
by his death the Church at home might be able to send out 
better and more consecrated workers for the bringing of 
the nation to Christ. "The Son of God goes forth to war," 
"Fight the good fight," and "Peace, perfect peace" were 
sung, and, as I said before, we all went away from that 
church impressed with what Bishop Ingle had been to the 
Chinese Church and people from his death, as well as from 
his life. This feeling was only accented by the English 
services in the afternoon. 

We cannot realize even yet that we have lost Bishop 
Ingle, and may not again go to him for his splendid advice 
and sympathy. We already miss him in a thousand ways, 
and will as the years go on. Still, we feel inspired to go 
on to even greater efforts, and to carry out, as individuals 
and as a mission, what he would have us. 

Very sincerely yours, 

Charlotte M. Littell. 



WW is t&at tn t&ee? JFoIIoto tfcou ^fle!" 




"Give work before the age of work be past ! 

Give work, oh give us work and still more work ! 
We crave the fruit of toil we shall not shirk ; 
We would complete, perfect, fulfil at last." 

The Master plucked a rose. "The thought, the power," 
He said, "the will to do, this is thy part. 
Things done are but the measure, thine the art. 

Fulfilment for the rose is in the flower." 

The life of Bishop Ingle was, we suppose, such as any one 
would, on first thoughts, call unfinished, cut short, incom- 
plete. In his short episcopate of only two years, his time 
was devoted to plan-making and organization, and it is 
almost irresistible for those of us who loved him to long 
that he might have been given the chance himself to build 
on the foundations which he laid. But it is an old truism 
that the standards of Christ's service are quite different 
from those of our more material viewpoint, and in esti- 
mating the success or completeness of the life of any of 
Christ's most devoted servants, — those who have made His 
standards their own, — it is by His standards that we are 
justified in making up our estimates of success or failure. 



We are standing on very holy ground when we presume to 
judge a human life according to its realization of the 
Christ's ideal. When is the point of maturity attained on 
this basis ? Wherein lies the triumph of success and attain- 
ment? Certainly it is not a matter alone of years. The 
Master Himself was younger than His servant when He 
came to His triumphant death. Nor is it by any means 
a matter of rounded-out human planning, with material 
accomplishment, — by no means a matter of life plans 
brought to completion. We have some ground for thinking 
that it is only through endurance and the manifestation 
of prolonged devotion and service that certain characters 
are judged fit for the King's great commendation. Of 
certain it is said, "If I will that he tarry." But it is 
equally manifest that the consummation of other lives is 
equally assured at so early a date in their Christian pro- 
gression that, as in the case of even the thief on the cross, 
the Christ Himself is ready to say, "To-day shalt thou be 
with Me." Suppose we take the view, which is so general 
among Christian thinkers, that the major purpose of 
human life is the development of character, and that all 
the great world movement toward what we class generally 
as Christian civilization, including the triumph of Chris- 
tian socialism, of eugenics, and the whole upward move- 
ment of things, has its chief value, not in the accomplish- 
ment, but in the moving power. We shall begin to realize 
very clearly that our former standards of completeness 
need considerable revising, and that any human life which 
has once attained a definite degree of purpose and stability 
may easily, according to Christ's standards, be fit for the 
kingdom of heaven. And the multiplicity of opportuni- 
ties and duties which apparently belong distinctly to any 
particular man may well be left in the hands of those who 
need them more. It is not, then, in the accomplishment of 
much that Christ's approval necessarily stands, but rather in 
the manhood, in the power, in the free-will to accomplish. 
According to this idea, the life of Bishop Ingle was a com- 



plete one. He never became known to the world at large, 
only to his own smaller circle of influences ; and the great- 
ness which was evidently in his path he never reached, 
according to the world's standard. The larger plans of his 
life were distinctly outlined, and in the wisdom of his 
successor are bearing fruit a hundredfold, largely through 
adherence thereto; but the man himself never brought 
them to completion. 

After the death of Bishop Ingle, and for several years, 
there was a constant expression, from both sides of the 
world, of an overwhelming sense of loss, and a very thor- 
ough realization thereof. 

And perhaps from his father alone was there no expres- 
sion of any sense of feeling of unfulfilment. Dr. Ingle, 
who outlived his son, and whose own life was typical of 
thorough accomplishment and long service, understood best 
of all that his son also had fulfilled. 

In reviewing the ideals of Ingle's episcopate in the 
mature light of some years now past, that which pre-emi- 
nently stands out clearly and convincingly is his real- 
ization that the one essential, supreme and above all, 
to the success of that devoted band who served under his 
leadership, lay in the personal attainment by each, and the 
united attainment by all, of some significant portion of the 
spiritual life which was the moving force of Christ's own 
human service. Ingle placed this first, and there remains 
that legacy in the district over which he had charge as a 
priceless assurance of its future triumph, — a spirit one, 
devoted, optimistic, hopeful, enthusiastic, which is evident 
to the most casual of sympathetic observers, and which 
may well balance the fact of the comparative youth of the 
majority of the staff as he left it. 

Next in importance was probably the breadth of view 
which Ingle gave to his fellow-workers through his great 
sympathy with all other bodies of Christians working in 
the same mid-China field. He realized the plain fact that 
whatever might be the mission of his own Church in 

[267 3 


establishing conservative Christian standards and dignity 
of worship, there yet lay only within the united hands of 
the whole Church of Christ a possibility of giving to China 
a form of Christianity adapted to all her needs. The 
plans which Ingle formed for the better development of 
his own work, his ideas of Christian discipline, of native 
education, of Christian unity, and his large views of the 
Church's duties, as exemplified in what seemed at first 
demands beyond the readiness of the Home Church to 
meet, — these have been set forth in his own letters, and 
their wisdom, and the Home Church's at least partial re- 
sponse, have been already adequately explained. 


"Mr. Ingle saw that Hankow was a strategic point for the 
missionary work of the Church, and that, from Hankow 
as a center, a great field, throughout the whole outlying 
district, lay before him. That is the field which he de- 


From the first he grasped the idea that, if the Church 
were to grow in China, it must grow according to the laws 
which are laid down for us in the New Testament. It 
must be a self-propagating, a self-disciplining, and a self- 
maintaining Church. 

1. It must be a self-propagating Church. So we find 
him, in his wisdom, not dissipating his energies going 
about hurriedly here and there, preaching exclusively to 
the heathen, face to face, himself, but devoting a large 
measure of his time and his strength to that far more im- 
portant task of educating and energizing and spiritualizing 

i From an address by Dr. Pott, published in the l l Spirit of 
Missions. ' ' 


his native assistants. He saw that if the Church were to 
grow at all, it must be through the native ministry and the 
native evangelists. And so he poured all his life's strength 
out upon them — upon molding their characters and devel- 
oping their minds. He soon showed them that he was 
their friend, treated them as his equals, brought them into 
his house and to his table, and took counsel with them in 
every matter of importance. It was said of the younger 
Pitt, that he expected great things of Englishmen, and so 
great things were accomplished. And it might equally 
well be said of young Ingle, that he expected great things 
of these young assistants — placed responsibility upon them 
and showed them what they could do; and so, instead of 
their working in a half-hearted and perfunctory manner, 
he had about him, in a short time, a zealous and enthusias- 
tic band of young men. 

In his foresight he saw that there was a necessity, in the 
work in China, of another class of men besides the ordained 
ministry. He could not wait for men who had received a 
thorough theological education in our schools and colleges, 
but he must have those less highly educated to serve as 
pioneers. The characteristics necessary in these men, he 
said, were sincerity, knowledge, and activity; and when he 
found a man who had these qualities he set that man to 
work. These men he settled in the towns and villages back 
from Hankow. There they would gather around them 
those interested in the Gospel message. These they would 
instruct, and when they had led them on to a certain point, 
Mr. Ingle would visit the station and admit those who 
were prepared as catechumens. Then the catechumens 
would be left for a further period under the instruction of 
the evangelist, and when they were ready for baptism, Mr. 
Ingle would visit the station again and admit them to 
membership in the Church. So there grew up the little 
congregations, here and there, of the Christian Church, 
the little flock in this town and in that town. And thus, 
in reading in the 'Spirit of Missions/ you will see how 



he went from place to place, baptizing thirty or forty men 
here and there, and how rapidly the work was growing, 
because it was growing on this principle of the Church it- 
self being made, at the very start, self -propagating. 

2. It must be a self-disciplining Church. In an Orien- 
tal country like China, where so many of the converts are 
taken out from raw heathenism and are received into the 
Christian Church, the lives of some are very far, indeed, 
from the Christian standard. There are frequent lapses, 
and often they fall back again into idolatry. The inherited 
tendencies of their nature are too strong for them. There 
goes on the struggle between the grace of God — the new 
truth and the new light — and the old man that is within 

Accordingly, just as in the New Testament times, Mr. 
Ingle soon discovered that a system of discipline was 
necessary, and in his wisdom he ordered it very much on 
the lines laid down in the New Testament. The gravest 
offender, the one who had brought shame upon the Church, 
was obliged to stand up in th© Christian congregation, 
publicly confessing his sin before his brethren, and then 
submit to being cut off for a time from Church privileges. 
When attending the services, he was required to occupy the 
bench assigned to the penitents. In every church there 
was the place for the communicants, the place for the bap- 
tized, the place for the catechumens, the place for the in- 
quirers, and, lastly, the place for the penitents. But never 
in any tyrannical spirit did he carry out this system of 
discipline. Always it was the Church itself administering 
it. He followed the method of St. Paul, as it is shown to 
us in his letter to the Church at Corinth. 

3. It must be a self-maintaining Church. That was an- 
other great principle of his work. No luxury, no ex- 
travagance in the work of developing the Church in China. 
As far as possible, the Christians must assume the support 
of it from the beginning. Most people, if they came to 
China, would be surprised at the absence, outside of the 



treaty-ports, of anything like church edifices. You would 
go, for instance, into some heathen city; you would tread 
the narrow thoroughfares ; you would look here and there, 
expecting to see the cross on some building, or the spire of 
some church. You would find nothing of the sort. You 
might go away and say, 'No Christian work is being car- 
ried on here.' But if you sought out some Christian man 
in his shop, and said to him, 'Where do you worship? 
Are there any Christians here?' — if it were a town near 
Hankow, he would lead you back from the shops, away 
from the market-place, to some quiet side street, and then 
to the house of some Christian man. He would lead you 
up the steep flight of stairs to the upper room. There is 
the church in the upper room in the house of such or such 
a Christian. The rude benches ; the Chinese scrolls on the 
wall, with their Chinese inscriptions ; the ordinary Chinese 
table for the altar; the simplest chancel arrangement; 
above all, the cross — the simple cross — indicate that this is 
the place where the Christians of that heathen town as- 
semble, Sunday after Sunday, to worship God. The 
Church there must wait for the signs of outward display. 
She must be content, for the present, with the reality 
within, as it was in New Testament times. 


It is a hard thing for one who loved him so well to sum 
up in a few sentences the impression that his character 
made upon us. Sagacity and gentleness — those, I think, 
were his great characteristics. Matthew Arnold, in speak- 
ing of our Lord, said that His life was characterized most 
of all by 'sweet reasonableness.' I think that is true of 
this disciple of our Lord — 'sweet reasonableness.' A 
statesman, yes; a wise man, yes; yet, with all that, true 
Christian gentleness and sympathy and love. And so he 
endeared himself to the hearts of all who knew him. 



You may travel a thousand miles on that great Yang-tse 
Kiver, from Shanghai to Ichang, and talk to the steam- 
boat captains and pilots, or you may talk with the foreign 
merchants you meet, many of whom are not what you 
would call religious men, and if you ask them about Bishop 
Ingle, they will only speak of him in terms of affection, 
because there was that 'sweet reasonableness' in all of his 
life. Such a life surely must be an inspiration to all of 
us who labor out there in far-off China, and to you here at 
home, intrusted, just as much as we are, with the extension 
of Christ's kingdom in this world. 

It seems to me we can all hear Bishop Ingle saying to us 
what, after all, sums up the whole of his life : 'Follow me, 
as I follow Christ." 

It was on the basis of just such impressions of the man as 
these that we once stated in a public address that so soon 
as China could give evidence of ten native Christians of the 
type of perfection of this man, there would be no future 
doubt or fear with regard to the ultimate victory of the 
Church in China. And we believe this to be absolutely 
true. But Christians of the type of Bishop Ingle are usu- 
ally often a product of the years, only of the centuries. 

At a dinner not long since, Bishop Ingle was referred to 
in a speech by a certain judge, a former classmate of his. 
The judge was recounting alphabetically the deeds of his 
college friends as he knew them. When he reached the I's, 
he mentioned only one name — Ingle's. He said that the 
most honored name among his classmates was that of the 
late Bishop of Hankow, a true and loyal martyr to the 
cause of Christ. After the mention of the name there was 
a pause for a few moments, when the Alumni arose as a 
body and stood in complete silence. 

And out of the silence I think I hear a voice saying, "If 
I will . . ., what is that to thee ? Follow thou Me !" 

And the Church of Christ, answering, says, "God 





We burn dim candles in the stifling fog 
Of godless pride and stolid self -content ; 

Then lo ! we see the mists 

Lifted — and light prevails ! 

We sow the living seed in stony ground : 
Behold ! it grows to wisdom and to height 

Of love for God and man — 

The flower and fruit of life. 

For golden human years lent where the cost 
Of rice measures men's lives and time has yet 

K~o hours, God's bank of life 

Still pays an hundredfold. 

Nor is there sacrifice at such a rate ! 

To spend one's meager love through paltry days 

And find the years scarce hold 

The wealth of love's increase ; 

To give "a cup of water to the least," 

And lift the eyes, and see Him take and drink ; 

Then, kneeling low, to feel 

His hand upon the head ! 

Jesus ! Well spent were life — to have Thee take 
(Through one the very least of Thy beloved) 

The cup and drink, then hear 

Thee say the great "Well done I" 




Abercrombie, Dr., 51 

Academy, Pantops, 13, 17, 18 

Africa, Equatorial, 5 

Alexandria, Va., Episcopal High 
School at, 7, 11, 32; Theolog- 
ical Seminary at, 7, 22, 23, 24, 
26 et seq. 

Alien Land Bill, California, 106, 

America, remarks on self-made 
men in, 1; Ingle makes flying 
home visit to, 161 

American Church Mission, 81 

Ancestor Worship, 222, 223 

Anglican Bishops, Conference 
of, 242, 246 

Anglican Communion, 109 

Anhui, 197 

Arnold, Matthew, 271 

Arts, Master of, Ingle receives 
degree of, 21, 22, 32 

Berkeley, William N., M.D., 

roommate of Ingle, 18 
Bible, editions of, in Hebrew, 

Greek, etc., 119; Chinese, 125, 

Bible-women, 212, 215 
Bickersteth, Bishop, 51 
Bishops, House of, 37, 199, 235 
Blackford, L. M., Principal of 

Episcopal High School, Alex- 
andria, Va., 7 
Board of Missions, 29, 30, 32, 

34, 135, 155, 184, 242, 248, 

250, 251, 259 
Bohlen, Jane, Girls ' School, 66 
Boone, Bishop, 31, 69 n., 109, 

136, 259 
Boone Memorial School. See 

Boone University 

Boone University, 66 n., 81, 223, 
226, 230, 231, 250, 262 

Borland, Dr., 252, 255, 259 

Boxer Eebellion, 184, 185 

Brown, Dr. Ben, university 
friend of Ingle, 38 

Buddha, ceremonies in honor of, 
61 ; large plaster image of, 142 

Buddhist Ceremonies, 61 

Buddhists, 167 

California Alien Land Bill, 106, 

Canal, Suez, 55 

Canton, 40, 42, 43, 44 

Catechists, 81, 82, 213, 214, 220, 

Catechumens, 81, 200, 213, 214, 

Cathedral Choir School, 229, 
230, 263 

Ceremonies, Taoist, 56, 190; 
Buddhist, 61 

China, passages quoted by Ingle 
from writings of his pupils iu, 
9; Ingle, while yet at college, 
resolves to go as missionary to, 
20; Episcopal jurisdiction in, 
24; Ingle applies for appoint- 
ment as missionary in, 29 et 
seq.; Ingle appointed mission- 
ary to, 34; cheating of for- 
eigners in, 57; evangelistic 
work among natives of, 64, 65 ; 
prevalence of hydrophobia in, 
67 n.; Ingle's difficulties with 
language study in, 71-SO; 
opium-smoking in, 84-85; Han- 
kow one of the safest places in, 
89; costume of natives of, de- 
scribed by Ingle, 91, 92; foot- 



binding in, 92, 237 ; remarkable 
number of dogs in, 92; argu- 
ments for the Christianization 
of, 96, 97; penetrating cold of, 
97, 98; Ingle on abundance 
and variety of noises in, 102- 
104; dealings of United States 
with, 106, 107; bishops of 
Anglican Communion in, 109; 
custom the strongest law of, 
152; irreligi us state of for- 
eigners in, 159; war between 
Japan and, 161; absence of 
patriotism in, 166, 167; great 
unrest among people of, 182 ; 
Ingle on conditions in, 187, 
188; Ingle first bishop of Amer- 
ican Church consecrated in, 
200; stories of alarming con- 
dition of, 239 
China, Empress Dowager of, 183 
' ' China 's Sorrow. ' ' See Yellow 

Chinatown, San Francisco, In- 
gle's account of his visit to, 
Chinese, Ingle's account of his 
experiences among, in San 
Francisco, 38-40; how they 
appeared to Ingle on board 
ship crossing the Pacific, 41- 
47; cheating of foreigners by, 
57; evangelistic work among, 
64-66 ; Ingle 's experiences 
with, in acquiring the lan- 
guage, 72 et seq.; apathy of, 
at fire in Hankow, 84; preva- 
lence of opium-smoking among, 
in Hankow, 84-85; attend 
communion service in new 
church at Hankow, 86; use of 
vile placards by, 89; mission 
services for, 90; costume of, 
described by Ingle, 91, 92; 
foot -binding among, 92; In- 
gle affected by unfriendly 
attitude of, 92, 93; use of 
torture by, 95, 96; anti-for- 
eign campaign conducted by, 
96, 97; new departure in mis- 
sion work among, 98 ; adminis- 

tration of baptism, confirma- 
tion, and communion to, 99- 
101 ; Ingle on abundance and 
variety of noises made by, 
102-104; riotous conduct of, 
in Hankow, 105 ; large number 
baptized at communion service 
for, 106; fond of chewing 
sugar-cane, 111; how pigs are 
unloaded from boats by, 111, 
112; St. Paul's filled with, 
119; Ingle on need of stern- 
ness in dealing with, 142, 143 ; 
reverses of, in war with Japan, 
164; absence of patriotism in, 
166, 167; great unrest among, 
182; suffer from cholera, 216, 
Chinese Bible, 125, 129 
Chinese Clergy, 82, 215, 246, 

248, 249, 252 
Chinese Costume, 91, 92, 137 
Chinese Customs, 38 et seq., 53 
et seq., 67-69, 75, 84, 85, 87- 
89, 92, 93, 95, 96, 102-104, 
105, 111, 112, 137, 138, 139- 
141, 156, 157, 163, 176, 177, 
187 et seq., 218-220, 221, 236, 
237, 243-245 
Chinese Death-watch, 58, 59 
Chinese Evangelists, 64, 65, 81, 
98, 125, 132, 153, 158, 170, 
171, 181, 182 
Chinese Exclusion Bill, 106 
Chinese Harmony of the Gos- 
pels, 151, 153, 154 
Chinese Language, Ingle 's 
study of, and progress in, 71- 
80, 129 
Chinese New Year, 73, 136, 137, 


Choir School, Cathedral, 229, 

280, 263 
Christian Association, Young 

Men's. See Young Men's 

Christian Association 
Church Mission, American, 81 
Church Missions House, 255 
Church of England, 109 
Church Unity, Ingle's hopes 

and efforts for, 240, 241, 242 



Clergy, Chinese, 82, 215, 246, 

248, 249, 252 
Communion, Anglican, 109 
Conference of Anglican Bish- 
ops, 242, 246 
Convention, General, 197, 248 
Converts, large numbers of, 

baptized, 81, 82 
Cornell University, 224 
Costume, Chinese, 91, 92, 137 
Crawford, A., letter of, com- 
mending Ingle to Board of 
Missions, 30 
Customs, Chinese. See Chinese 

Death-watch, Chinese, 58, 59 
Divinity School, Philadelphia, 

Dodson, Miss, Principal of St. 

Mary 's School, 53 n., 54 
Dunn, Kev. Jos. B., Eector of 

Episcopal Church at Suffolk, 

Va., 20 

Editorial Notes, 11, 28, 39, 40, 
41, 42, 45, 46, 47, 54, 55, 57, 
58, 59, 61, 66, 67, 69, 76, 77, 
86, 87, 94, 95, 98, 102, 108, 
109, 111, 113, 115, 120, 124, 
133, 134, 137, 150, 157, 169, 
174, 195, 244, 247, 251 

Educational Work, Ingle on, 
173, 174, 226, 227 

Ellis, Josiah E., letter of, de- 
scribing Ingle's seminary life, 
26, 27 

Empress Dowager of China, 183 

England, Church of, 109 

English, Pidgin, 58 

Episcopal Church, Protestant, 
32, 135 

Episcopal High School of Vir- 
ginia, 7, 11, 32 

Equatorial Africa, 5 

Equatorial Africa, Bishop of. 
See Hannington, James 

Evangelistic Work, Ingle on, 
173, 174, 225, 226 

Evangelists, Chinese, 64, 65, 

81, 98, 125, 132, 153, 158, 170, 
171, 181, 182 
Exclusion Bill, Chinese, 106 

Foochow, butchery of mission- 
aries by Chinese near, 168 

Foot-binding, practice of, in 
China, 92, 237, 244 

Foreign Missions. See Mis- 
sions, Foreign 

Frederick, Md., birthplace of 
Ingle, 1, 3, 14, 32 

General Convention, 197, 248 
Gospels, Chinese Harmony of 

the, 151, 153, 154 
Government Schools, Japanese, 

educational work in, 17 
Grammer, Dr. Carl Eckhart, 7, 

Graves, Bishop, 66, 67, 68, 88, 

89, 92, 110, 112, 137, 138, 184, 

186, 194, 197 et seq., 255, 259 

et seq. 
Greek Bible, 119 
Griffin, definition of, as used in 

East, 83 
Guild, Woman 's, 91 

Hankow, churchly atmosphere 
of, 29; Ingle invited to work 
in, 38, 59; described to Ingle 
as a rather lonely place, 60; 
visited by Ingle, 61-69; Ingle 
returns to Shanghai from, OD ; 
study of Chinese language 
taken up by Ingle in, 71-80; 
lack of missionary workers in. 
81; Kev. Arthur H. Locke 
placed in charge of, 81; 
growth of mission work in, 81 ; 
sufferers from fire in, helped 
by Ingle, 84; prevalence of 
opium-smoking among Chinese 
in, 84-85; Ingle attends com- 
munion service in new church 
at, 86; one of the safest places 
in China, 89; Ingle starts 
night-school in, 89, 90; mission 
services at, 90; need of head 
for women's work in, 91; en- 



couraging progress of night- 
school at, 91; costume of na- 
tives of, described by Ingle, 
91, 92; foot-binding in, 92; 
Ingle impressed by remarkable 
number of dogs in, 92; cli- 
matic changes of, have de- 
pressing effect on Ingle, 93, 
94; anti-foreign campaign in, 
96, 97 ; penetrating cold of, 97, 
98; new departure in mission 
work at, 98; administration of 
baptism, confirmation, and 
communion to Chinese in, 99- 
101 ; Ingle on abundance and 
variety of noises in, 102-104; 
riotous conduct of Chinese in, 
105; work of one of the 
deacons in, 106; Ingle on 
avoidance of foreigners by 
missionaries in, 114; writes to 
his father from, 123, 124; left 
in charge of work at, after 
Locke 's departure, 130-136 ; 
irreligious state of foreigners 
in, 159 ; Ingle brings his young 
wife to, 162 ; rumored visit of 
foreign troops to, 186; Ingle 
elected bishop of new district 
of, 197, 198, 199; first epis- 
copal visitation in district of, 
208-216; outbreak of cholera 
in, 216, 217; demand for 
higher education in, 230; re- 
turn of Ingle and family from 
Ruling to, 246 

Hankow, Bishop of. See Ingle, 
James Addison 

Hannington, James, first Bishop 
of Equatorial Africa, 5, 6, 14, 
17, 33 

Han Eiver, 81 

Hanyang, 81, 105, 153 

Hare, Bishop, 99, 100, 101 

Harmony of the Gospels, Chi- 
nese, 151, 153, 154 

Hawaiian Islands, 107 

Hebrew Bible, 119 

Hodge, Dr. S. R., 252 

Holy Cross, Order of the, 217 

Hong Kong, 41, 44, 136 

Honolulu, 107 
Hospital, Wuchang, 230 
House of Bishops, 37, 199, 235 
Hunan, 23, 68, 96, 126, 147, 

197, 220, 226 
Huntington, Rev. Mr., 177, 211 

et seq. 
Hupeh, 197 
Hwang, Deacon, 115, 116, 119, 

155, 170 

Ichang, 89, 99, 118, 121, 177, 
191, 195, 197, 210, 211, 212, 
214, 226, 272 

Ingle, James Addison, birth of, 
1 ; his early years, 3, 4 ; youth- 
ful pastimes, 4, 5; a bright 
and studious pupil, 5, 6; con- 
firmation of, 6; frank, affec- 
tionate, brave, and high-spir- 
ited, 6; spends two years at 
Episcopal High School, Alex- 
andria, Va., 7; wins two high- 
est distinctions in gift of 
school, 7; his early character- 
istics, 7; writes home, 8, 9; 
his school-boy efforts in prose, 
9, 10; youthful attempts at 
verse, 10, 11; graduates from 
Episcopal High School, 11; 
matriculates in University of 
Virginia, 11; purposes to be- 
come a foreign missionary, 13 ; 
passes through period of self- 
examination, 13, 14; fights 
battle of self-renunciation to a 
finish, 14; defines "consecra- 
tion" in address at old home 
church in Frederick, 14-16; 
his call to Christian mission 
work, 16-18; university life 
of, described by his roommate 
Berkeley, 18-21; consults his 
father about accepting teach- 
er 's appointment under Japan- 
ese Government, 21, 22; his 
power of concentration and 
sustained mental exertion, 22; 
a many-sided man, 22, 23; his 
keen sense of humor, 23; stu- 
dent in Theological Seminary 

£280 ] 


of Virginia, 23, 24; suffers a 
great disappointment, 25; ex- 
hibits signs of morbid intro- 
spection, 25; his seminary life 
described by his associates, 26- 
29; applies for appointment as 
missionary in China, 29 et 
seq.; ordained deacon, 33; his 
ordination to the priesthood, 
34; appointed missionary to 
China, 34 ; travels in the United 
States, speaking on the gen- 
eral subject of missions, 35; 
missionary letters of, 36-38; 
leaves Frederick, 38; arrives 
in Shanghai, 38; removes per- 
manently to Hankow, 38; re- 
counts his experiences in San 
Francisco 's Chinatown, 38-40 ; 
crossing the Pacific, 40-47 ; his 
impressions of Japan while on 
the way to China, 47-50; in 
Nagasaki, 50, 51; arrives at 
Shanghai, 52; first impres- 
sions, 53-55; begins study of 
Chinese language, 55; further 
impressions of Shanghai, 55- 
58; explanation of pidgin 
English by, 58; describes the 
Chinese death-watch, 58, 59; 
adoption of Chinese surname 
by, 59 ; considers invitation to 
work in Hankow, 59; attends 
a big Chinese dinner, 60; vis- 
its a preaching station, 60, 61 ; 
Buddhist ceremonies described 
by, 61; visits Hankow, 61 et 
seq.; Mr. Locke's evangelistic 
work described and approved 
by, 64-66 ; returns to Shanghai, 
69; cheered by news from 
home, 69; in Hankow, 69; 
plays part of Santa Claus for 
children of mission schools, 
70 ; bewildered in the intri- 
cacies of a fearful language, 
70 ; Western shrewdness versus 
Eastern duplicity, 70; expects 
to celebrate communion and 
preach every Sunday, 70; pur- 
poses to teach class in English 

five afternoons a wook, 70; 
takes up study of Chinese lan- 
guage, 71-80; becomes pro- 
ficient in its use, 80 ; compiles 
and translates a number of 
useful books in Chinese, 80; 
begins missionary and educa- 
tional work in Hankow, 81, 
82 ; has an attack of fever and 
spends summer in Japan, 82; 
his marriage, 82, 161; helps 
sufferers from fire in Hankow, 
84; discusses evil of opium- 
smoking, 84-85; attends com- 
munion service in new church, 
86 ; takes a walk under difficul- 
ties, 87; starts night-school 
for teaching of English, 89, 
90 ; administers the Cup in the 
Chinese communion, 90 ; on the 
need of a head for the wo- 
men's work, 91; encouraged 
by progress of night-school, 
91; Chinese costume described 
by, 91, 92; on foot-binding, 
92; impressed by remarkable 
number of dogs in Hankow, 
92; affected by unfriendly at- 
titude of natives, 92, 93; de- 
pressed by climatic changes, 
93, 94; on the use of torture 
by the Chinese, 95, 96; com- 
ments on the anti-foreign cam- 
paign, 96, 97; suffers from 
penetrating cold, 97, 98; new 
departure in mission work de- 
scribed by, 98; his estimate of 
Locke, 98, 99; favorably im- 
pressed by Bishop Hare, 99; 
describes a very successful ser- 
vice, 99-101; denies reports of 
wretchedness and discontent, 
101, 102; on abundance and 
variety of Chinese noises, 102- 
104; determines soon to begin 
afternoon services on Sunday, 
104; recounts instance of Chi- 
nese cowardice, 105 ; gives ex- 
ample of Chinese administra- 
tion of justice, 105; hungers 
for beautiful service of Prayer- 



book, 106; on Chinese Ex- 
clusion Bill, 106; discusses 
cookery, Chinese riots and 
barbarities, ?nd the British 
concession and its people, 107- 
109; interested in efforts to 
settle matter of Chinese work, 
110; greatly encouraged by 
support of people of conces- 
sion, 110, 111 ; amused by 
watching Chinese boatmen at 
work, 111, 112; visited by two 
of Committee on English 
Church, 112 ; feels pretty badly 
and doctors himself, 112; at- 
tends tennis party, 112; has a 
good deal to do, 113; makes a 
suggestion to his father con- 
cerning the Guild, 113; rallies 
his family on their anxiety 
about him, 113, 114; on avoid- 
ance of foreigners by mission- 
aries in Hankow, 114; bene- 
ficial effects of tennis upon, 
114, 115; on work of Chinese 
deacons, 115, 116; describes a 
sad exhibition of human na- 
ture, 116, 117; introduces 
games among men at mission, 
117; refers to a deplorable 
state of affairs, 117; receives 
Chinese visitors, 118, 119; 
mentions his three chief an- 
noyances, 120; propriety of 
his course in church trouble 
recognized, 121; feels discour- 
aged after preaching, 122; 
reassures his family on the 
subject of his illness, 122, 123; 
ordered by his physician to 
Japan, 123; describes the trip 
in letter to his father, 123, 
124; refers to the problems 
that have to be met in his 
work, 125, 126; discusses re- 
bellion, cholera, and the duties 
of a missionary, 126-128; his 
spiritual growth, 129; begs his 
congregation not to neglect the 
Lord's Supper, 129; left in 
charge of the work in Hankow 

after Locke's departure, 130- 
136; his belief in the work, 
134, 135; expects to visit his 
home in the United States, 
137; relates an unpleasant 
piece of news, 137, 138; on 
Rev. Mr. Graves's election to 
the bishopric, 138, 139; re- 
counts the annoyances of a 
week, 139-141; has many 
plans, 141; on need of stern- 
ness in dealing with Chinese, 
142, 143; repairs church organ, 
144; comments on subject-mat- 
ter of address, 145, 146 ; bitten 
by a centipede, 146; appointed 
member of Standing Commit- 
tee, 147, 178; interested in a 
zealous candidate for baptism, 
147-150 ; makes Chinese Har- 
mony of the Gospels, 151, 153, 
154; describes marriage cere- 
mony at which he officiated, 
151, 152; goes to Wuchang to 
examine candidates for clea- 
conate, 155; suffers loss by 
fire, 155; appeals for financial 
help, 155, 156; officiates at 
another wedding, 157; de- 
scribes proposed trip by water, 
158 ; constantly thinking about 
coming home, 158; speaks 
plainly and earnestly to con- 
gregation, 159, 160; lengthens 
converts ' period of prepara- 
tion, 160; makes flying home 
visit to America, 161 ; returns, 
with his wife, to the Far East, 
161, 162; tastes the flavor of 
victory and realizes therewith 
his power, 162; appointed on 
committee to revise Chinese 
version of Prayer-book, 162, 
165; has various dealings with 
mandarins, 163; receives dis- 
tinguished visitors, 165; dis- 
cusses changes in methods of 
mission work, 166; on absence 
of patriotism in Chinese, 166, 
167; sends details of butchery 
of missionaries by Chinese 



near Fooehow, 168 ; paper sent 
to Shanghai Conference by, 
169-174; birth of son to, 175; 
schedule of work made out by, 
178 ; goes with his family to 
Ruling, 179; two notices is- 
sued by, 180, 181; birth of 
daughter to, 183; in America, 
184; constantly occupied in 
speaking on work in China, 
184, 185; reaches Yokohama in 
fine condition, 186; in Shang- 
hai, 186; in Hankow, 187; re- 
turns from trip to Han-ch 'uan, 
187; on conditions in China, 
187, 188, 223, 224; relates a 
sad instance of working of 
Chinese unwritten law, 189- 
191 ; gives details of dreadful 
flood along the Yang-tse, 195; 
grows prouder of his wife and. 
children every day, 195; suf- 
fers from fever, 195, 196; 
elected bishop of new district 
of Hankow, 197, 198, 199; 
consecration of, 200, 201; first 
pastoral letter of, 201-204; 
extracts from guide to candi- 
dates prepared by, 204-206; 
his first episcopal visitation, 
208-216; attitude toward ap- 
plicants for membership in 
mission, 217, 218; gives an ac- 
count of the work, 218-220; 
his first ordination, 221, 222; 
papers and letters by, on work 
of mission, 225-237; describes 
observance of Fourth of July 
in Ruling, 238, 239; ordered 
by his doctor to spend summer 
in Ruling, 239, 251; plans to 
visit his home in the United 
States, 239; his hopes and 
efforts for Church Unity, 240, 
241, 242 ; laid up with sprained 
ankle, 242; last days of, in 
Ruling, 242, 243; returns with 
his family to Hankow, 246 ; at- 
tends first conference of An- 
glican bishops of China and 
Corea, 246; impresses his fel- 

low-bishops with his powerful 
personality, 247; his visitation 
of various mission stations, 
247; prevented by illness from 
attending conference of Chi- 
nese clergy, 248, 249; his last 
letter, 249-251; critically ill, 
252, 253; his prayer for his 
family, for his fellow-laborers, 
and for the whole Church, 25 I ; 
affecting scene at the bedside, 
254; prays for the welfare oi 
the Chinese Church, 256; holy 
communion administered to, 
257; his death, 257; estimate 
of his work, 265-272 

Ingle, Mrs. James Addison 
(Charlotte Rhett), 82, 159, 
161, 165, 192, 238, 239, 240, 
243, 249, 253, 254, 256, 258, 
259, 261, 263 

Ingle, James Addison, Jr., let- 
ter announcing birth of, 175 ; 
his explanation of Sunday trip, 
238; expresses approval of his 
father 's sermon, 243 

Ingle, Mary Addison, sister of 
Bishop Ingle, vi i 

Ingle, Mary Mills (Addison), 
mother of Bishop Ingle, 1, 3, 7 

Ingle, Eev. Osborne, father 
of James Addison Ingle, 1, 2, 
6, 21, 24, 34; letters from 
James Addison Ingle to, 106, 
111, 112, 115-117, 121, 123, 
124, 128, 129, 131-134, 138- 
141, 142, 143, 145, 146, 147, 
150, 151, 152-154, 158-160, 
165, 177 et seq., 186, 242 ; note 
by, on his son's return to 
China, 161; outlives his son by 
several years, 161 ; letter to, 
describing funeral services for 
his son, 260-263 

Inland Sea, Japan, 47, 49, 63 

Island of Poppenberg, 51 

Islands, Hawaiian, 107 

Jane Bohlen Girls ' School, 66 
Japan, appointment as teacher 
of English in, declined by In- 

C283 3 


gle, 22; Ingle's impressions 
of, while on his way to China, 
47-50; Ingle has an attack of 
fever and spends summer in, 
82; dealings of United States 
with, 106, 107; Ingle ordered 
to, by his physician, 123; war 
between China and, 161 

Japanese, Ingle recounts his im- 
pressions of, while on the way 
to China, 47-50; resolutions 
adopted by, in the Hawaiian 
Islands, 107; gain ground in 
war with China, 164 

Japanese Government, prefer- 
ence of, for Christians as 
teachers of English, 21, 22 

Japanese Government Schools, 
educational work in, 17 

John, Dr. Griffith, 262 

Joss House, Ingle's account of 
his visit to, in San Francisco 's 
Chinatown, 39, 40 

Kiangsi, 197 

Kiangsu, 188, 197 

Kimber, Kev. Joshua, letters of 
James Addison Ingle to, 143, 
144, 164, 184, 187, 233 

Kinsolving, Rev. A. B., 113 

Kobe, 48 

Ruling, summer resort for for- 
eigners in mid-China, 179; 
observance of Fourth of July 
by Americans in, 238, 239; 
Ingle ordered by his doctor to 
spend summer in, 239, 251; 
Ingle's last days in, 242, 243 

Langford, Rev. Dr. W. S., let- 
ters from Ingle to, 31, 32, 131; 
Ingle requests that financial 
aid be sent through, 106 

Language, Chinese. See Chi- 
nese Language 

Lloyd, Rev. Dr. A. S., James 
Addison Ingle to, 185, 199, 

Locke, Rev. Arthur H., 38, 59, 
61, 63 et seq., 70, 72, 76, 78, 

81, 82, 86, 89, 98, 99, 101, 106, 

116, 117, 119, 125, 127 et seq., 

141, 182 
Loong Hwo, 61 
Lord's Supper, Ingle's solemn 

warning against neglect of, 


Mackay, Dr., 165 
McKim, Bishop, 199, 200 
Mandarins, Ingle's dealings 

with, 163 
Massie, Rev. Robert, 42 n. 
Master of Arts, Ingle receives 

degree of, 21, 22, 32 
Medical Work, Ingle on, 227, 

Merrins, Dr., 66, 67, 88, 92, 142 
Minor, Mrs. John B., 20 
Mission, American Church, 81 
Missions, Board of, 29, 30, 32, 
34, 135, 155, 184, 242, 248, 
250, 251, 259 
Missions, Foreign, call to, de- 
fined, 14 et seq.; contributions 
of Theological Seminary of 
Virginia to, 23, 24; Ingle 
travels in United States, 
speaking on general subject 
of, 35 
Missions House, Church, 255 
Mission Work, Methods of, 64- 
66, 90, 98 et seq., 106, 110, 
111, 113 et seq., 118, 119, 125, 
126 et seq., 131-136, 141, 143, 
144, 147-150, 153, 154, 160, 
161, 164, 169-174, 176, 178, 
181, 182, 201-204, 206, 207, 
208-216, 218-220, 224 et seq., 
243-245, 265-271 
Muller, Frank, 19 

Nagasaki, 50, 51 

New Year, Chinese, 73, 136, 

137, 163 
New York, 250 
Nganking, 197, 207, 227, 246, 

247, 252 
Nieh, Deacon, 157, 170 
Norris, James W., friend of 

Ingle, 22 



Notes, Editorial. See Editorial 

Ocean, Pacific, Ingle recounts 
his experiences while crossing, 

Opium-smoking, prevalence of, 
in China, 84-85 

Order of the Holy Cross, 217 

Pacific Ocean, Ingle recounts 
his experiences while crossing, 

Pacific States, 107 

Pantops Academy, 13, 17, 18 

Paret, Eight Eev. William, 
Bishop of Maryland, 33, 34 

Partridge, Bishop, 199, 200 

Patteson, Bishop, 69 

Peking, 145, 183, 188 

Philadelphia Divinity School, 

Pidgin English, 58 

Pinkney, Eight Eev. William, 
Bishop of Maryland, 6 

Poppenberg, Island of, 51 

Pott, Dr. P. L. H., 53 n., 55, 
56r?., 59, 60, 121, 194, 268 n. 

Pott, James, 53 n. 

Prayer-book, beautiful service 
of, 106; solemn warning in, 
against neglect of Lord 's Sup- 
per, 129; Ingle appointed on 
committee to revise Chinese 
version of, 162, 165 

Protestant Episcopal Church, 
32, 135 

Eawlings, Eev. James M., 19 
Eebellion, Boxer, 184, 185 
Ehett, Albert M., 161, 228, 231 
Ehett, Charlotte. See Ingle, 

Mrs. James Addison 
Eoberts, E. Walter, James Ad- 
dison Ingle to, 220 
Eoots, L. H., Bishop of Han- 
kow, 110, 177, 208, 210, 229, 
233, 248, 249, 261, 264 

St. John's College, Shanghai, 

50, 53, 55, 58, 59, 69, 102, 230, 
St. Mary 's School, 53 ». 
Santa Claus, Ingle plays part 
of, for children of mission 
schools, 70 

Scheie de Vere, Prof., 21 

Sea, Inland, Japan, 47, 49, 63 

Shanghai, 29, 30, 31, 34, 38, 
42 n., 47, 50, 52, 55, 56, 58, 
59, 60, 61, 62, 69, 72, 89, 92, 
109, 110, 114, 123, 136, 159, 
162, 165, 186, 191, 194, 195, 
197, 230, 242, 244, 246, 247, 

Shanghai Conference, paper 
sent by Ingle to, 169-174 

Shasi, 177, 181, 197, 212, 213, 
214, 227, 228 

Sherman, Eev. Mr., 253, 254, 
257, 261, 262 

Shimonoseki, Straits of, 49; 
village of, 49 

Shinn, Austin B., letter of, de- 
scribing Ingle's seminary life, 

Smith, Arthur H., missionary 
and writer, 102, 104 

Smith, Dr., 151, 154 

Soo Chow, 56 

States, Pacific, 107 

States, United. See United 

Suez Canal, 55 

Taoist Ceremonies, 56, 190 
Taoist Temple, description of, 

67, 68 
Tehsen, Chinese surname of 

James Addison Ingle, Jr. See 

Testaments, Old and New, 172 
Theological Seminary, Virginia, 

7, 22, 23, 24, 26 ct seq. 
Thomson, Dr., 248, 252, 256, 

Thomson, Eev. E. H., 30, 31, 

32, 80, 134, 177 

United States, Ingle travels in, 
speaking on general subject of 

£285 3 


missions, 35 ; dealings of, with 

China and Japan, 106, 107; 

Ingle plans to visit his home 

in, 137, 239 
Unity, Church. See Church 

University of Virginia, 11, 23, 


Vancouver, 137, 250 
Vegetarians, 149, 150 
Vere ; Prof. Scheie de, 21 
Virginia, Episcopal High School 

of, 7, 11, 32 
Virginia, University of, 11, 23, 

Virginia Theological Seminary, 

7, 22, 23, 24, 26 et seq. 

Wang, Deacon, 116, 117, 148, 

149, 150, 193, 263 
Wesleyans, 136 
White, Miss Claudia J., Baptist 

missionary, 40 et seq. 
Woman's Guild, 91 
Women, Bible-, 212, 215 
Wood, John W., James Addison 

Ingle to, 194, 195, 217, 218, 

221, 230, 231, 233, 240 
Woodward, Dr., 255, 258, 259 
Woo Sung, 52 

Work, Educational, Evangelis- 
tic, Medical. See the adjec- 
Worship, Ancestor, 222, 223 
Wuchang, 66, 67, 81, 88, 89, 92, 
99, 101, 136, 142, 155, 177, 
186, 191, 192, 197, 208, 230, 
Wuchang Hospital, 230 
Wuhu, 62, 123, 197, 207, 221, 
226 ' 

Yang-tse, 52, 55, 81, 109, 110, 
186, 187, 188, 195, 226, 272 

Yellow Eiver ("China's Sor- 
row"), ruin caused by over- 
flow of, 126 

Yellow Sea, 52 

Yin Teh-sen, Chinese surname 
of Bishop Ingle. See Ingle, 
James Addison 

Yokohama, 41, 45, 93, 186 

Yonge, Charlotte M., 69 

York, New, 250 

Young Men 's Christian Associa- 
tion, work of, at college deeply 
interests Ingle, 20; Ingle a 
vice-president of, 178 

Zeus, heathen poets' statement 
as to children of, 145 








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